Warning: include(domaintitles/domaintitle_wiki.exoticindiaart.php3): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/exotic/newexotic/header.php3 on line 921

Warning: include(): Failed opening 'domaintitles/domaintitle_wiki.exoticindiaart.php3' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/exotic/newexotic/header.php3 on line 921

Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Best Deals
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Philosophy > Language > Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava)
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava)
Pages from the book
Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava)
Look Inside the Book
Description

About the Author

Bharata’s Natyasastra is on encyclopaedia of Dance, Drama and Music. It has 36 or 37 chapters. The Chaukhamba edition contains 36 chapters while Kavyamala edition contains 37 chapters. Abhinavagupta followed a text of Natyasastra containing 36 chapters. This is evident from his statement - (Introductory stanza No. 2 in the beginning of his Abhinavabharati, which will be noted henceforth as A.B.). Again on p. 8 - of the I volume, Abhinavagupta says: (A.B.). It is found in the Kavyamala edition that the 36th chapter has been divided into two chapters as 36th and 37th.

The Natyasastra gives a detailed account of the sources of aesthetic pleasure. It deals with the architecture of the theatre, metres to be employed, the postures, movements and gestures of actors. It given an exhaustive treatment of the mode in which the actors are to deliver their speeches. It presents an elaborate analysis of the different types of dramas, of the structures of the dramas and of their styles. It also gives directions about the songs to be sung and the musical instruments to be used and treats in detail of the musical notes and their combinations.

This work is outstanding in the range of works on dramaturgy in the world. It is unparalleled in its comprehensiveness, scope and literary and artistic flourish. It occupies a unique place as the earliest available source of Indian dance, drama and music.

As a background to the study of this work either fully or in parts, an account of the author, his date and his contribution to the field of poetics and dramaturgy should be necessarily given.

Date of Bharata:

Bharata is ascribed with the authorship of Natyasastra. The date of Bharata as the author of Natyasastra is discussed here on the basis of certain evidences. Since there are frequent additions made to the text of Natyasastra, and since there are substantial discrepancies in the manuscripts of the work, the discussion about the date of the work should refer to a time when the principal structure and chapters of the work had been put up with only some verse or verses inserted here and there later. Even that time is only probable. This is decided with the consideration of the upper and lower limits of the date of Natyasastra.

There are references to Visvakarman (2.7 and 12), Puranas (14.46, 27.59), Purvacaryas (15.22), Kamatantra (23.37, 52), Brhaspati (24.88, 34.79), Narada (32.1, 32.484), Tandu (4.17), Pasupatas (13.85), Sabara, Abhira and Dravida (18.36), Soka (18.40) in the Natyasastra. These references do not much help in inferring the date of Natyasastra. They just make it probable that the present work is not much older than the beginning of the Christian era. The probable upper limit is thus 1st century A.D.

The lower limit can be indicated with some certainty. The evidences are: (i) Kalidasa refers to Bharata in his Vikramorvasiya (1. 18). This leads to the inference that before 450 A.D. at the latest Bharata had been regarded as founder of Natyasastra. It can be also inferred that he had spoken of eight Rasas and had performed a drama before the gods. This shows that by 450 A.D. the legend about the birth of Natyasastra in the first chapter and the discussion about eight Rasas in the sixth chapter existed. In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa xix. 21, there is a reference to Khandita Nayika. This points to the eight Nayikas enumerated and defined in the Natyasastra 31. 109-110 and the subsequent verses. Again in Raghuvamsa xix. 36, it is said: This has reference to Natyasastra 24.1.

(ii) Gathasaptasati of Satavahana (Hala) says in a verse (No. 344) that “embraces are the ‘Purvaranga’ of the drama of love”. This points to ‘Purvaranga’ treated in the fifth chapter of Natyasastra. The date of Gathasaptasati is between 200 to 400 A.D.

(iii) The Yajnavalkyasmrti, after stating that by reciting the Saman songs properly the singer reaches Brahman, extends the same reward to those who sing seven kinds of non-Vedic songs called Aparantaka, Ullopyaka, Mandraka, Prakari, Ovenaka, Sarobindu and Uttara. The Natyasastra gives a treatment of these seven non-Vedic songs called Mandraka, Aparantaka, Prakari, Rovindaka (for Sarobindu), Ovenaka, Ullopyaka and Uttara in the 31st chapter. Scholars like P.V. Kane are inclined to believe that these verses in Yajnavalkyasmrti are taken from Natyasastra. Then Natyasastra should be placed not later than the first or second century A.D.

(iv) All the ancient writers on Alankaras, Bhatti, Bhamaha, Dandin, Udbhata define more than thirty Alankaras. Bharata defines only four Alankaras called Upama, Dipaka, Rupaka and Yamaka. Therefore, it is possible to say that Bharata preceded these writers by some centuries.

On the basis of the above evidences, it is possible to put 300 A.D. as the lower limit of the date of Natyasastra (Bharata). Before 300 A.D. there existed a work under the name of Bharata containing a Rasa theory and dealing with dramaturgy.

Natyasastra on topics of Alankarasastra:

Although Natyasastra is a work on dance, drama and music, yet in the present context of poetics, it is proposed to give an account of the topics of Alankarasastra. The 16th and the 17th chapters of Natyasastra are devoted to the treatment of four concepts of Alankarasastra, viz., Alankara, Guna, Dosa and Laksana. In chapters 6 and 7, Bharata enumerates eleven Angas of Natya, viz., Rasa, Bhava, Abhinaya, Dharmin, Vrtti, Pravrtti, Siddhi, Svara, Atodya, Gana and Ranga and after mentioning their divisions, deals in detail with Rasas and Bhavas. Before explaining the concepts of Alankara, Guna, Dosa and Laksana, Bharata gives a definition of Kavya which brings out the nature of poetry and prose appealing to the spectators:(N.S., 1. 124). The auspicious kavya of the spectators of drama should be rich with soft and charming words, free from words having hidden meaning, easy of understanding for the ordinary people, suitable to the dramatic representation, abundant with Rasas and endowed with the arrangement of Sandhis. With this definition in view, Bharata deals with the concepts of Alankara, Guna, Dosa, Laksana, Sandhis, Sandhyangas, Rasa, Bhava and other details about drama.

 

Preface

Bharata’s Natyasastra is an outstanding primary source on ancient Indian Dance, Drama and Music. It deals with some principles of literature as a part of Vacikabhinaya. Chapters VI and VII have been a great contribution to the field of Indian literary criticism. A study of those chapters gives us a glimpse of a culmination of a long period of development in the field of Dance. Drama and Music with some principles of literary criticism. This edition of VI and VII chapters with an Introduction, Translation and Notes in English has been prepared to meet the needs of the students of the Graduate and post-Graduate levels.

The Introduction called “About the Author” gives an account of the date of Bharata and his contribution to literary criticism. Chapters VI and VII dealing with Rasa and Bhava respectively follow the Introduction. An authentic version of the text of those chapters has been given. It is divided into suitable paras with translation and critical notes. Extracts from Abhinava-bharati have been taken in the notes for the elucidation of the points in the text.

I sincerely hope that this will provide enough material for the benefit of the scholars, students and other readers who are interested in the study of Rasa and Bhava.

I bow with reverence to the holy feet of H.H. Vishweshatirtha Swamiji for the ‘Anugrahasandesha’ and the blessings.

I am grateful to Prof. D. Prahlada Char, the Chairman and Dr. A.V. Nagasampige, the Director of PPSM, for having taken up this work for publication. I convey my thanks to Shree Graphics, Thyagaraja Nagar, for having done the D.T.P. work neatly.

My thanks are also due to staff of Nandi Process, for having got this work printed neatly and quickly.

 

Contents

 

1 About the Author Date of Bharata (2): Natyasastra on topics of Alankara-sastra (4); Alankaras (5): Dosas (6); Gunas (8); Laksanas (II); Rasa and Bhava (14). 1
2 Chapter 6 Five questions (17); definition of Sangraha (22); definition of Karika (24): definition of Nirukta (25). Enumeration of Rasas and Bhavas (26): Ahhinayas (30); Dharmins, Vrttis, Pravrttis and Siddhis (31); Svaras and Atodyas (33); Gana and Ranga (35); Rasa nirupana (36): FourVadas on Rasa (42); Lolata’s Utpattivada (43); Sri Sankuka’s Anumitivada (44); Bhattanayaka’s Bhuktivada (47); Abhinavagupta’s Vyaktivada (50); Rasas and Bhavas (54); three questions (55); Utpadya-uptadaka relation (60); Varnas of Rasas (63); Devatas of Rasas (64); exposition of Rasas (66); classification of Rasa on the ground of differences in Vibhavas (97); on Santarasa (99). 17
3 Chapter 7 Definition of Bhava (104); definition of Vibhava (109): definition of Anubhava (Ill); Sthayibhava is ‘pradhana’ (115); Sthayi-bhavas defined (118): definitions of Vyabhicaribhavas (134): Sattvikabhavas (186): use of Sancaribhavas, etc., in Rasas (194); forty-nine Bhavas (195); Sthayibhavas and other Bhavas (202). 1
Sample Page


Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava)

Item Code:
NAC912
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
9788191024685
Language:
Text, Translation, and Detailed Commentary
Size:
8.4 Inch X 5.5 Inch
Pages:
214
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 226 gms
Price:
$23.50
Discounted:
$18.80   Shipping Free
Usually ships in 15 days
You Save:
$4.70 (20%)
Look Inside the Book
Be the first to rate this product
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava)
From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 18054 times since 15th Apr, 2019

About the Author

Bharata’s Natyasastra is on encyclopaedia of Dance, Drama and Music. It has 36 or 37 chapters. The Chaukhamba edition contains 36 chapters while Kavyamala edition contains 37 chapters. Abhinavagupta followed a text of Natyasastra containing 36 chapters. This is evident from his statement - (Introductory stanza No. 2 in the beginning of his Abhinavabharati, which will be noted henceforth as A.B.). Again on p. 8 - of the I volume, Abhinavagupta says: (A.B.). It is found in the Kavyamala edition that the 36th chapter has been divided into two chapters as 36th and 37th.

The Natyasastra gives a detailed account of the sources of aesthetic pleasure. It deals with the architecture of the theatre, metres to be employed, the postures, movements and gestures of actors. It given an exhaustive treatment of the mode in which the actors are to deliver their speeches. It presents an elaborate analysis of the different types of dramas, of the structures of the dramas and of their styles. It also gives directions about the songs to be sung and the musical instruments to be used and treats in detail of the musical notes and their combinations.

This work is outstanding in the range of works on dramaturgy in the world. It is unparalleled in its comprehensiveness, scope and literary and artistic flourish. It occupies a unique place as the earliest available source of Indian dance, drama and music.

As a background to the study of this work either fully or in parts, an account of the author, his date and his contribution to the field of poetics and dramaturgy should be necessarily given.

Date of Bharata:

Bharata is ascribed with the authorship of Natyasastra. The date of Bharata as the author of Natyasastra is discussed here on the basis of certain evidences. Since there are frequent additions made to the text of Natyasastra, and since there are substantial discrepancies in the manuscripts of the work, the discussion about the date of the work should refer to a time when the principal structure and chapters of the work had been put up with only some verse or verses inserted here and there later. Even that time is only probable. This is decided with the consideration of the upper and lower limits of the date of Natyasastra.

There are references to Visvakarman (2.7 and 12), Puranas (14.46, 27.59), Purvacaryas (15.22), Kamatantra (23.37, 52), Brhaspati (24.88, 34.79), Narada (32.1, 32.484), Tandu (4.17), Pasupatas (13.85), Sabara, Abhira and Dravida (18.36), Soka (18.40) in the Natyasastra. These references do not much help in inferring the date of Natyasastra. They just make it probable that the present work is not much older than the beginning of the Christian era. The probable upper limit is thus 1st century A.D.

The lower limit can be indicated with some certainty. The evidences are: (i) Kalidasa refers to Bharata in his Vikramorvasiya (1. 18). This leads to the inference that before 450 A.D. at the latest Bharata had been regarded as founder of Natyasastra. It can be also inferred that he had spoken of eight Rasas and had performed a drama before the gods. This shows that by 450 A.D. the legend about the birth of Natyasastra in the first chapter and the discussion about eight Rasas in the sixth chapter existed. In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa xix. 21, there is a reference to Khandita Nayika. This points to the eight Nayikas enumerated and defined in the Natyasastra 31. 109-110 and the subsequent verses. Again in Raghuvamsa xix. 36, it is said: This has reference to Natyasastra 24.1.

(ii) Gathasaptasati of Satavahana (Hala) says in a verse (No. 344) that “embraces are the ‘Purvaranga’ of the drama of love”. This points to ‘Purvaranga’ treated in the fifth chapter of Natyasastra. The date of Gathasaptasati is between 200 to 400 A.D.

(iii) The Yajnavalkyasmrti, after stating that by reciting the Saman songs properly the singer reaches Brahman, extends the same reward to those who sing seven kinds of non-Vedic songs called Aparantaka, Ullopyaka, Mandraka, Prakari, Ovenaka, Sarobindu and Uttara. The Natyasastra gives a treatment of these seven non-Vedic songs called Mandraka, Aparantaka, Prakari, Rovindaka (for Sarobindu), Ovenaka, Ullopyaka and Uttara in the 31st chapter. Scholars like P.V. Kane are inclined to believe that these verses in Yajnavalkyasmrti are taken from Natyasastra. Then Natyasastra should be placed not later than the first or second century A.D.

(iv) All the ancient writers on Alankaras, Bhatti, Bhamaha, Dandin, Udbhata define more than thirty Alankaras. Bharata defines only four Alankaras called Upama, Dipaka, Rupaka and Yamaka. Therefore, it is possible to say that Bharata preceded these writers by some centuries.

On the basis of the above evidences, it is possible to put 300 A.D. as the lower limit of the date of Natyasastra (Bharata). Before 300 A.D. there existed a work under the name of Bharata containing a Rasa theory and dealing with dramaturgy.

Natyasastra on topics of Alankarasastra:

Although Natyasastra is a work on dance, drama and music, yet in the present context of poetics, it is proposed to give an account of the topics of Alankarasastra. The 16th and the 17th chapters of Natyasastra are devoted to the treatment of four concepts of Alankarasastra, viz., Alankara, Guna, Dosa and Laksana. In chapters 6 and 7, Bharata enumerates eleven Angas of Natya, viz., Rasa, Bhava, Abhinaya, Dharmin, Vrtti, Pravrtti, Siddhi, Svara, Atodya, Gana and Ranga and after mentioning their divisions, deals in detail with Rasas and Bhavas. Before explaining the concepts of Alankara, Guna, Dosa and Laksana, Bharata gives a definition of Kavya which brings out the nature of poetry and prose appealing to the spectators:(N.S., 1. 124). The auspicious kavya of the spectators of drama should be rich with soft and charming words, free from words having hidden meaning, easy of understanding for the ordinary people, suitable to the dramatic representation, abundant with Rasas and endowed with the arrangement of Sandhis. With this definition in view, Bharata deals with the concepts of Alankara, Guna, Dosa, Laksana, Sandhis, Sandhyangas, Rasa, Bhava and other details about drama.

 

Preface

Bharata’s Natyasastra is an outstanding primary source on ancient Indian Dance, Drama and Music. It deals with some principles of literature as a part of Vacikabhinaya. Chapters VI and VII have been a great contribution to the field of Indian literary criticism. A study of those chapters gives us a glimpse of a culmination of a long period of development in the field of Dance. Drama and Music with some principles of literary criticism. This edition of VI and VII chapters with an Introduction, Translation and Notes in English has been prepared to meet the needs of the students of the Graduate and post-Graduate levels.

The Introduction called “About the Author” gives an account of the date of Bharata and his contribution to literary criticism. Chapters VI and VII dealing with Rasa and Bhava respectively follow the Introduction. An authentic version of the text of those chapters has been given. It is divided into suitable paras with translation and critical notes. Extracts from Abhinava-bharati have been taken in the notes for the elucidation of the points in the text.

I sincerely hope that this will provide enough material for the benefit of the scholars, students and other readers who are interested in the study of Rasa and Bhava.

I bow with reverence to the holy feet of H.H. Vishweshatirtha Swamiji for the ‘Anugrahasandesha’ and the blessings.

I am grateful to Prof. D. Prahlada Char, the Chairman and Dr. A.V. Nagasampige, the Director of PPSM, for having taken up this work for publication. I convey my thanks to Shree Graphics, Thyagaraja Nagar, for having done the D.T.P. work neatly.

My thanks are also due to staff of Nandi Process, for having got this work printed neatly and quickly.

 

Contents

 

1 About the Author Date of Bharata (2): Natyasastra on topics of Alankara-sastra (4); Alankaras (5): Dosas (6); Gunas (8); Laksanas (II); Rasa and Bhava (14). 1
2 Chapter 6 Five questions (17); definition of Sangraha (22); definition of Karika (24): definition of Nirukta (25). Enumeration of Rasas and Bhavas (26): Ahhinayas (30); Dharmins, Vrttis, Pravrttis and Siddhis (31); Svaras and Atodyas (33); Gana and Ranga (35); Rasa nirupana (36): FourVadas on Rasa (42); Lolata’s Utpattivada (43); Sri Sankuka’s Anumitivada (44); Bhattanayaka’s Bhuktivada (47); Abhinavagupta’s Vyaktivada (50); Rasas and Bhavas (54); three questions (55); Utpadya-uptadaka relation (60); Varnas of Rasas (63); Devatas of Rasas (64); exposition of Rasas (66); classification of Rasa on the ground of differences in Vibhavas (97); on Santarasa (99). 17
3 Chapter 7 Definition of Bhava (104); definition of Vibhava (109): definition of Anubhava (Ill); Sthayibhava is ‘pradhana’ (115); Sthayi-bhavas defined (118): definitions of Vyabhicaribhavas (134): Sattvikabhavas (186): use of Sancaribhavas, etc., in Rasas (194); forty-nine Bhavas (195); Sthayibhavas and other Bhavas (202). 1
Sample Page


Post a Comment
 
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to Bharata’s Natyasastram (Chapters VI and VII: Rasa and Bhava) (Philosophy | Books)

Pictorial & Descriptive Glossary of Bharata’s Natyasastra (A Student's Companion)
by Smt. N.A. Laxmi
Hardcover (Edition: 2011)
Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha
Item Code: NAJ209
$43.00$34.40
You save: $8.60 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Natyasastra: Sanskrit Text With Transliteration and English Translation (Set of 2 Volumes)
Deal 20% Off
Item Code: NAL649
$105.00$67.20
You save: $37.80 (20 + 20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
BHARATA - The Natyasastra
by Kapila Vatsyayan
Paperback (Edition: 2018)
Sahitya Akademi, Delhi
Item Code: IDD947
$29.00$23.20
You save: $5.80 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Dramatic Concepts: Greek and Indian (A Study of Poetics and  Natyasastra)
Deal 20% Off
by Bharat Gupt
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDD162
$32.50$20.80
You save: $11.70 (20 + 20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Knowledge Tradition Text: Approaches to Bharata’s Natyasastra
Item Code: NAC601
$29.00$23.20
You save: $5.80 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Introduction to Bharata's Natyasastra
Item Code: IMD15
$20.50$16.40
You save: $4.10 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
NATYASASTRA OF BHARATA-MUNI - 4 Volumes
Item Code: IDG155
$105.00$84.00
You save: $21.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Natyasastra and Bharat Natya
by Hema Govindarajan
Hardcover (Edition: 1992)
Harman Publishing House
Item Code: NAM161
$36.00$28.80
You save: $7.20 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Natyasastra - Revisited
by Bharat Gupta
Paperback (Edition: 2016)
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Item Code: NAM228
$31.00$24.80
You save: $6.20 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Testimonials
Thank you so much. Your service is amazing. 
Kiran, USA
I received the two books today from my order. The package was intact, and the books arrived in excellent condition. Thank you very much and hope you have a great day. Stay safe, stay healthy,
Smitha, USA
Over the years, I have purchased several statues, wooden, bronze and brass, from Exotic India. The artists have shown exquisite attention to details. These deities are truly awe-inspiring. I have been very pleased with the purchases.
Heramba, USA
The Green Tara that I ordered on 10/12 arrived today.  I am very pleased with it.
William USA
Excellent!!! Excellent!!!
Fotis, Greece
Amazing how fast your order arrived, beautifully packed, just as described.  Thank you very much !
Verena, UK
I just received my package. It was just on time. I truly appreciate all your work Exotic India. The packaging is excellent. I love all my 3 orders. Admire the craftsmanship in all 3 orders. Thanks so much.
Rajalakshmi, USA
Your books arrived in good order and I am very pleased.
Christine, the Netherlands
Thank you very much for the Shri Yantra with Navaratna which has arrived here safely. I noticed that you seem to have had some difficulty in posting it so thank you...Posting anything these days is difficult because the ordinary postal services are either closed or functioning weakly.   I wish the best to Exotic India which is an excellent company...
Mary, Australia
Love your website and the emails
John, USA
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2020 © Exotic India