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Decipherment of Harappan Script (Set of 2 Volumes)
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About the Book
The book Decipherment of Harappan Script is the result from an interest which the author developed in Harappan Archaeology since last 24 years during his stay in Institute of Archaeology London and later on in National Museum we Delhi where he was holding charge of Harappan material. Proto Dravidian and earliest Aryan were present in Harappan population. The author concluded Harappan script was Proto Brahmi and their languages were Proto-Dravidian Brahmi and Laukik Sanskrit. The more positive chapter is identification of Harappan script sign.

This book has 27 papers on Harappan script. The author contradicted pre conceived idea of only Dravidian language theory of Harappan. He prefers Name of South Asian civilization for this earliest Harappan civilization of South Asia.

A unique contribution of the author is identification of Inscribed double headed terracotta Siva from Kalibangan. Which has three sign in proto-Brahmi script and author read these sign as or Sivam.

About the Author
Dr. D.P. Sharma did his M.A. in Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology from Allahabad University. He continued his field work and participated in various excavations at Pangoraria, Mansar, Narmada Valley, and Bhimbetka. Chopani-Mando, Mehargara, Koldihwa, Mahadaha, Sringaverpur and Bhardwaj Ashram. Besides this, he did extensive exploration in districts of Fatehpur, Pratapgarh, Allahabad of U.P. and Buddha area of Madhya Pradesh. Another significant contribution of author is discovery of Menander - I (Posthumous) Brahmi inscription from Reh. During 1983-84, he was awarded Commonwealth scholarship and he meritiously qualified M.A., (Archaeology) with specialization on Paleolithic-Mesolithic of world, from Institute of Archaeology, University of London. He participated in the excavation of Sussex (U.K.) and Pincenvent (France).

He did D.Phil. research in Allahabad University.

In 1985, he joined as Dy. Keeper at National Museum, New Delhi. In 1992, he was promoted as Keeper in National Museum. He was Associate Professor in National Museum Institute and Head of Collection, Harappan and Pre-history, ational Museum, we Delhi. He has 33 books and 210 research papers in his credit. At present he is Director Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum. B.H.U. Varanasi.

Preface
This book Decipherment of Harappan Script is the result of interest which present author developed in Harappan Archaeology since last 24 years when he took over charge of Antiquities of Harappan civilization collection of National Museum New Delhi. National Museum New Delhi has around 4800 art objects of Indus valley in which 400 are inscribed. This book has 27 papers on Harappan Script. The important paper include of D.P. Sharma, I. Mahadevan, J. Newbery Ushanos E.R, G.L. Passel, Pathak, S. Kak, A. Sundara, D. Dhania, K. Kumar B. Chakravarti, S.B. Bhardwaj N.S. Rajaram, B. Priyanka and Madhuri Sharma. A joint publication was brought out by Parpola and J.P. Joshi (1987) included all the seals and sealing’s of the National Museum New Delhi. In this collection we have included all unpublished inscribed material of National Museum and Loan of objects from Archaeological Survey of India. The present work was stimulated by the work of my teachers Late Prof G.R Sharma, Prof B.B. Lal, Dr.S., Negi, Dr. L.A. Narian, Dr. S.N. Roy, Dr. Radha Kant Verma, Dr. Ian Glover, Prof V.D. Mishra, and Dr. Mark Kenoyer Sheri Clark, Dr. K.N. Dikshit, Dr. G. Passel, Dr. Jai Narayan Pandey, Dr. Louise Martin Institute of Archaeology, London, Dr. Nayanjot Lahiri Delhi University, V. Shinde Mr. RS. Bisht, and S. Kak.

Proto Dravidian and Aryan were very well present among Harappan population. New discovery of ocher colored pottery (O.C.P.) from Jodhpur and copper hoard weapons from Sanauli Ganeshwar, Lothal, Madarpur and Mithatal confirms Authors view of copper hoard i.e., Aryans were living together with Dravidian population of Harappan civilization. Editor also concluded Harappan script is Proto-Brahmi and their Languages were Proto-Dravidian and Laukik Sanskrit. I was much impressed by the work done by S.R. Rao, A. Pathak, Aska Parpola, S. Kak, J.P. Joshi, B.B. Lal and I. Mahadevan but I defers with some views of Parpola. The more positive section of this book is on glyptic seals and identification of Harappan sign.

In 1985 when I joined as Day Keeper, Prehistory and Archaeology at National Museum, New Delhi and later on I was promoted as keeper and I took over charge of Harappan Antiquities. Soon after team of Aska Parpola and J.P. Joshi examined Seals from Harappan sites. I showed them Inscribed Harappan material for five years and while doing this work I developed interest in Harappan script.

I did not like pre-conceived idea of only Dravidian origin of some scholar (Parpola Mahadevan and others) and we need some more archaeological material and earliest evidence of Dravidian language in support of only Dravidian origin theory which is lacking. Planet worship and importance of Siva and celestial Gods had been dominant factor of Harappan religion and this is common denominator religious factor among Dravidian and early Aryan population of South Asia. The term for South Asia is most appropriate for this Civilization and the term was also accepted by B.B. La! and Mark Kenoyer.

V Hi) The main obstacle in deciphering the Harappan script is the complete lack of translations, known scripts and language, we do not have Greek version or Brahmi version of this unknown script which was available in Rosetta stone inscription of Egyptian hieroglyph in other known scripts. Like logo syllabic script of Indus Valley and their interpretation, stamp seal of Nindowari on Indus sign depicts the palm-squirrel (M-1202).

On the basis of the above-mentioned observation present author concluded "Indus script was logo-syllabic and akin with Brahmi. The Egyptians were the first who knew-about script around 3000 B.C. when they carne in contact with the proto-Elarnite invaders of Mesopotamia.

Introduction
During the third millennium B.C. a highly developed civilization known as Harappan Civilization, existed along the rivers Indus and Saraswati and Western Uttar Pradesh, all located in north-western part of South Asia. The area covered 2.6 million sq. km by the Harappan Civilization extended from Suktagendor shahi Tump on the Makran coast situated on the border of S.E. Iran and Pakistan to Alamgirpur and Hulas, Mandi and Shamlinagar, Sanouli, Nahcauli and Toppal (near Greater Noida) all on the Hindon river in western Uttar Pradesh, and Shurtaghai (Mghanistan) in the north to Daimabad in western Maharashtra. Harappan sites in Delhi are Bhorgarh, Mandauli, Dhansa and Karkari Nahar. On the basis of calibrated radiocarbon dates the age for the Mature Harappan Civilization ranges to circa 2700-1900 B.C. The early Harappa’s first made their village settlement around circa 3500 B.C. in Baluchistan. Later on they shifted to Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and developed themselves as Mature Urban Harappa’s.

The Harappan houses were built mostly of bricks and stone on high platforms. The pattern of this civilization in certain respects was uniform as in evident, not only from the seals, sealing’s, writings, beads, weights and measures, pottery etc., but also from the bricks and brick-laying technique which are the same. The linear measuring scale has been found at Lothal, Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro and Allahdino. Mature Harappan sites like Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Kalibangan had each a citadel on high mound in the west and a fortified chessboard patterned lower town in the east. The Dholavira town planning was having three principal divisions named as Acropolis (Citadel), middle town and lower town, which was surrounded by a rectangular massive stone fortification wall. This requires confirmation from other Harappan sites. The Great Bath tank at Mohenjo-Daro shows the state of perfection reached in perfect building techniques. It is 39 x 23 feet in area and 8 feet deep. Identical tanks were found at Dholavira.

The most beautiful of all the figurines found at Mohenjo-Daro are two small figures of a dancing girl in bronze. The famous stone bust of a bearded man, dad in embroidered shawl with trefoil motif, now in the National Museum, Karachi, resembles the image of a priest.

Similar type of a headless seated stone priest and Mongooses recently reported from Dholavira. Now They used gold and silver to make bracelets, necklaces, bangles, earrings, and headMohenjo-Daro, Farman, Nindowari, Sanouli, Allahdino, Bhimana, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, Quetta, Dholavira and Harappa.

Book's Contents and Sample Pages
















Decipherment of Harappan Script (Set of 2 Volumes)

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About the Book
The book Decipherment of Harappan Script is the result from an interest which the author developed in Harappan Archaeology since last 24 years during his stay in Institute of Archaeology London and later on in National Museum we Delhi where he was holding charge of Harappan material. Proto Dravidian and earliest Aryan were present in Harappan population. The author concluded Harappan script was Proto Brahmi and their languages were Proto-Dravidian Brahmi and Laukik Sanskrit. The more positive chapter is identification of Harappan script sign.

This book has 27 papers on Harappan script. The author contradicted pre conceived idea of only Dravidian language theory of Harappan. He prefers Name of South Asian civilization for this earliest Harappan civilization of South Asia.

A unique contribution of the author is identification of Inscribed double headed terracotta Siva from Kalibangan. Which has three sign in proto-Brahmi script and author read these sign as or Sivam.

About the Author
Dr. D.P. Sharma did his M.A. in Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology from Allahabad University. He continued his field work and participated in various excavations at Pangoraria, Mansar, Narmada Valley, and Bhimbetka. Chopani-Mando, Mehargara, Koldihwa, Mahadaha, Sringaverpur and Bhardwaj Ashram. Besides this, he did extensive exploration in districts of Fatehpur, Pratapgarh, Allahabad of U.P. and Buddha area of Madhya Pradesh. Another significant contribution of author is discovery of Menander - I (Posthumous) Brahmi inscription from Reh. During 1983-84, he was awarded Commonwealth scholarship and he meritiously qualified M.A., (Archaeology) with specialization on Paleolithic-Mesolithic of world, from Institute of Archaeology, University of London. He participated in the excavation of Sussex (U.K.) and Pincenvent (France).

He did D.Phil. research in Allahabad University.

In 1985, he joined as Dy. Keeper at National Museum, New Delhi. In 1992, he was promoted as Keeper in National Museum. He was Associate Professor in National Museum Institute and Head of Collection, Harappan and Pre-history, ational Museum, we Delhi. He has 33 books and 210 research papers in his credit. At present he is Director Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum. B.H.U. Varanasi.

Preface
This book Decipherment of Harappan Script is the result of interest which present author developed in Harappan Archaeology since last 24 years when he took over charge of Antiquities of Harappan civilization collection of National Museum New Delhi. National Museum New Delhi has around 4800 art objects of Indus valley in which 400 are inscribed. This book has 27 papers on Harappan Script. The important paper include of D.P. Sharma, I. Mahadevan, J. Newbery Ushanos E.R, G.L. Passel, Pathak, S. Kak, A. Sundara, D. Dhania, K. Kumar B. Chakravarti, S.B. Bhardwaj N.S. Rajaram, B. Priyanka and Madhuri Sharma. A joint publication was brought out by Parpola and J.P. Joshi (1987) included all the seals and sealing’s of the National Museum New Delhi. In this collection we have included all unpublished inscribed material of National Museum and Loan of objects from Archaeological Survey of India. The present work was stimulated by the work of my teachers Late Prof G.R Sharma, Prof B.B. Lal, Dr.S., Negi, Dr. L.A. Narian, Dr. S.N. Roy, Dr. Radha Kant Verma, Dr. Ian Glover, Prof V.D. Mishra, and Dr. Mark Kenoyer Sheri Clark, Dr. K.N. Dikshit, Dr. G. Passel, Dr. Jai Narayan Pandey, Dr. Louise Martin Institute of Archaeology, London, Dr. Nayanjot Lahiri Delhi University, V. Shinde Mr. RS. Bisht, and S. Kak.

Proto Dravidian and Aryan were very well present among Harappan population. New discovery of ocher colored pottery (O.C.P.) from Jodhpur and copper hoard weapons from Sanauli Ganeshwar, Lothal, Madarpur and Mithatal confirms Authors view of copper hoard i.e., Aryans were living together with Dravidian population of Harappan civilization. Editor also concluded Harappan script is Proto-Brahmi and their Languages were Proto-Dravidian and Laukik Sanskrit. I was much impressed by the work done by S.R. Rao, A. Pathak, Aska Parpola, S. Kak, J.P. Joshi, B.B. Lal and I. Mahadevan but I defers with some views of Parpola. The more positive section of this book is on glyptic seals and identification of Harappan sign.

In 1985 when I joined as Day Keeper, Prehistory and Archaeology at National Museum, New Delhi and later on I was promoted as keeper and I took over charge of Harappan Antiquities. Soon after team of Aska Parpola and J.P. Joshi examined Seals from Harappan sites. I showed them Inscribed Harappan material for five years and while doing this work I developed interest in Harappan script.

I did not like pre-conceived idea of only Dravidian origin of some scholar (Parpola Mahadevan and others) and we need some more archaeological material and earliest evidence of Dravidian language in support of only Dravidian origin theory which is lacking. Planet worship and importance of Siva and celestial Gods had been dominant factor of Harappan religion and this is common denominator religious factor among Dravidian and early Aryan population of South Asia. The term for South Asia is most appropriate for this Civilization and the term was also accepted by B.B. La! and Mark Kenoyer.

V Hi) The main obstacle in deciphering the Harappan script is the complete lack of translations, known scripts and language, we do not have Greek version or Brahmi version of this unknown script which was available in Rosetta stone inscription of Egyptian hieroglyph in other known scripts. Like logo syllabic script of Indus Valley and their interpretation, stamp seal of Nindowari on Indus sign depicts the palm-squirrel (M-1202).

On the basis of the above-mentioned observation present author concluded "Indus script was logo-syllabic and akin with Brahmi. The Egyptians were the first who knew-about script around 3000 B.C. when they carne in contact with the proto-Elarnite invaders of Mesopotamia.

Introduction
During the third millennium B.C. a highly developed civilization known as Harappan Civilization, existed along the rivers Indus and Saraswati and Western Uttar Pradesh, all located in north-western part of South Asia. The area covered 2.6 million sq. km by the Harappan Civilization extended from Suktagendor shahi Tump on the Makran coast situated on the border of S.E. Iran and Pakistan to Alamgirpur and Hulas, Mandi and Shamlinagar, Sanouli, Nahcauli and Toppal (near Greater Noida) all on the Hindon river in western Uttar Pradesh, and Shurtaghai (Mghanistan) in the north to Daimabad in western Maharashtra. Harappan sites in Delhi are Bhorgarh, Mandauli, Dhansa and Karkari Nahar. On the basis of calibrated radiocarbon dates the age for the Mature Harappan Civilization ranges to circa 2700-1900 B.C. The early Harappa’s first made their village settlement around circa 3500 B.C. in Baluchistan. Later on they shifted to Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and developed themselves as Mature Urban Harappa’s.

The Harappan houses were built mostly of bricks and stone on high platforms. The pattern of this civilization in certain respects was uniform as in evident, not only from the seals, sealing’s, writings, beads, weights and measures, pottery etc., but also from the bricks and brick-laying technique which are the same. The linear measuring scale has been found at Lothal, Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro and Allahdino. Mature Harappan sites like Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Kalibangan had each a citadel on high mound in the west and a fortified chessboard patterned lower town in the east. The Dholavira town planning was having three principal divisions named as Acropolis (Citadel), middle town and lower town, which was surrounded by a rectangular massive stone fortification wall. This requires confirmation from other Harappan sites. The Great Bath tank at Mohenjo-Daro shows the state of perfection reached in perfect building techniques. It is 39 x 23 feet in area and 8 feet deep. Identical tanks were found at Dholavira.

The most beautiful of all the figurines found at Mohenjo-Daro are two small figures of a dancing girl in bronze. The famous stone bust of a bearded man, dad in embroidered shawl with trefoil motif, now in the National Museum, Karachi, resembles the image of a priest.

Similar type of a headless seated stone priest and Mongooses recently reported from Dholavira. Now They used gold and silver to make bracelets, necklaces, bangles, earrings, and headMohenjo-Daro, Farman, Nindowari, Sanouli, Allahdino, Bhimana, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, Quetta, Dholavira and Harappa.

Book's Contents and Sample Pages
















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