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Books > Hindu > Gita > Hindi > गीतातात्पर्यनिर्णय: Gita Tatparya Nirnaya of Sri Anandatirtha (Set of 2 Volumes)
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गीतातात्पर्यनिर्णय: Gita Tatparya Nirnaya of Sri Anandatirtha (Set of 2 Volumes)
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गीतातात्पर्यनिर्णय: Gita Tatparya Nirnaya of Sri Anandatirtha (Set of 2 Volumes)
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Part I


Preface

Bhagawad Gita advocates the philosophy of duty. this is based on the realistic world view, monotheism and universal ethics. In view of this, it appeals to all sections of the society. Sri Ananda tirtha has written two commentories on it, viz. Gitabhasya and Gitatatparya. Both these do not give word by word meaning, but bring out the philosophical message of Bhagavad Gita quoting ‘shruti’ and ‘smruti’ passages in support of these doctrines. In view of the importance of this work, later writers have composed commentaries and sub-commentories on it. The earlier commentary is ‘Prakasika’ of Sri Padmanabha Tirtha. Nyaya Dipika of Sri Jayatirtha gives full exposition of both Gitabhasya and Gita tatparya. On this four sub commentaries by Sri Raghavendra Tirtha, Sri Satyaprajna Tirtha, Sri Satyanatha tirtha and Tamraparni Acharya are available. These were not published so far and included in this volume for the first time. This work is planned in two volumes. The first volume contains the text and the commentaries of ten chapters. A detailed introduction in English is also added. It is hoped that this volume will be useful to the traditional and modern scholars and research students.

I express my thanks to Sri Krishnacharya Upadhyaya in assisting the editing of this volume. I also thank Vagartha for neat printing and get up.

Gitatatparya nirnaya
Introduction
Life and work of Sri Madhvacharya

Anandatirtha alias Sri Madhvacharya, the founder of the Dvaita Vedanta System of Indian Philosophy flourished during 1238 to 1317 A.D. He was born in the village Pajakaksetra near Udupi in the South Kanara District of Karnataka on the West coast of India. He was ordained to Sannyase by Achyuta Preksa when he was just 16 years old. His father Madhyageha Bhatta belonged to Pancaratra Bhagavata Vaisnava Sampradaya, and was well versed in ltihasa Purana. Madhvacharya started studying Advaita Vedanta texts like Istastddhi under Achyuta Preksa. He was not satisfied with the Advaita approach and took an independent line of approach to the sacred texts of the Vedic religion. He had a deep knowledge of Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition to which his father and a number of other families around belonged. These families had migrated from the North and the Central India due to the disturbed political conditions in that area. The Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition has been a strong theistic tradition of Vaisnava religion. The Advaita Vedanta that was propagated by Sankara a few centuries back had weakened the theistic foundation of Vedic religion by its concept of Nirguna Brahman. The Supreme God was relegated to a secondary position by his concept of Saguna Brahman as Isvara. The concept of Jaganmithyatva i.e. illusory nature of the world had led to a pessimistic approach to the life. Karmasanyasa was taken to be the ideal of life and the active life was considered as inferior level. Sri Madhvacharya did not approve of this approach to Vedanta Philosophy and set to interpret the source books of Vedanta Philosophy viz., Veda, Upanisads, Brahmasutra, Gita and ltihasa Purana to bring out the monotheism and the realism of Vedanta Philosophy. He propounded’ the philosophy of duty, devotion and dedication. He developed the purna Brahma concept as against the Nirguna Brahma concept of Sankara. He developed the Bimbaprattibimba relation concept between Brahman and Jiva as against the Identity concept of Sankara. He developed the Paramartika Satyatva concept of the world as against the Vyavaharika Satyatva concept of Sankara. Thus, the metaphysics of the two is basically opposed to each other. Consequently, the epistemology, ethics and the theism are also quite different.

II

To highlight the above doctrine Sri Madhvacharva composed thirty seven works which are known as Sarvamula Granthas. These are neatly planned as:


a) Bhasyas on Rgveda (first forty hymns), the ten principal Upanisads, Brahmasutra and Gita.
b) Ten Prakarana works.
c) The digests of Mahabharata and Bhagavata.
d) Three treatises on worship and conduct viz., Tantrasarasangraha, Sadacarasmrti and Krsnamrta Maharnava and a few stotras.

On Brahmasutras, in addition to the Bhasya he has composed three more commentaries among which Anuvyakhyana is most important. It runs into two thousand verses and discusses all important issues of Vedanta philosophy and reviews all the systems of Indian Philosophy. His chief commentator Sri Jayatirtha has written an extensive commentary viz., Nyayasudha on this work. Among the ten Prakarana wors, Visnutatvinirnaya is most important. In this work also topics like Veda apauruseyatva, bheda satyatva, Visnu sarvottamatva are discussed. The interpretation of important sruti passages like Tat tvam est ‘Ahern Brahma asmi’ are discussed.

Sri Madhvacharya does not confine the sources of Vedanta thought to Prasthanatrayi only. For him Itihasa Purana, particularly Mahabharata and Bhagavata are as much the sources of Vedanta thought as Prasthanatrayi. These embody the thoughts of the Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition. In order to bring out this rich thought and make it a part of Vedanta thought he composed the two digests vlz. Mahabharata tatparya nirnaya and Bhagavata tatparya nirnaya. A summary of the Ramayana is also included in the former. These works fully bring out the theology and ethics of Pancaratra Bhagavata Vaisnava tradition. He also takes the entire Veda as the source of Vedanta philosophy and demonstrates the philosophical meaning of Rgveda in his Rgbhasya. Among his stotra works. Dvadasa stotra has the depth of the philosophy, beauty of the poetry and the charm of the music. The entire plan of his Sarvamula works is not merely to propound a philosophical system but also to organise and consolidate a religious tradition and culture.

Such an organisation and consideration necessitated him to tour all over India twice, debate with the contemporary Scholars and build a following. He successfully built a following enrolling some eminent scholars of the time to his faith. Full details of his life and works are described in a Sanskrit biography viz. Sumadhva Vijaya and also described fully in the History of Dvaita Literature written by Dr. B.N.K. Sharma. The Sanskrit biography brings out his spiritual stature. He is described as an incarnation of Vayu and chief messenger of the God. Some of his miraculous acts are also described. His visit to Bedarikasrama in Himalayas is graphically described. He ordained four distinguished scholars of his time to Sanyasa. The senior most of them viz., Sri Padmanabhatlrtha, was earliest to comment on his works. Another contemporary scholar viz., Trivikrama Pandita also wrote a commentary on his Brahmasutre Bhasya. Sri Jayatirtha a successor of Padmanabhatirtha has written extensive commentaries on all major works of Sri Madhvacharva. In due course several distinguished scholars like Sri Vyasaraja. Sri Vadiraja, Sri Raghuttama, Sri Vidyadhisa, Sri Raghavendra etc. have enriched the literature of Dvaita Vedanta by their extensive commentaries.

The Sarvamula granthas have been the basis of this entire literature. This literature is a rich contribution to the Indian Philosophy literature both on the dialectical side and the interpretational side.

The Dvaita Vedanta’s contribution to the Indian Philosophical thought in the field of metaphysics consists of the concept of P{ITI)a Brahman as an independent principle and the Central reality, the Jiva and the Jagat as distinct but dependent realities, the concept of Visesa to explain the relation between the substance and its inseparable attributes, the concept of bheda i.e., the difference as real and as an internal attribute of every object, the concept of Paramanu as infinitely divisable, the unique concept of the time as pravahato nitya i.e., moving in a flux, the concept of Avyakrita Akasa i.e., non differentiated space, the concept of a kind of functional birth i.e., Paradhina Visesavapti even for the eternal objects and a few other subtle points.

In the field of epistemology the concept of Premenya Svatastva i.e., selfevident nature of the validity of knowledge, the concept of Saksin i.e. cognition of all knowledge by the self, the new theory of the truth and error, improvement in the structure of Syllogism constitute Dvaita Vedanta contribution. The concept of Paramamukhyavritti, the doctrine of Sarvasabda vschyetva, the utilisation of the cannons of interpretation Upakrama, Upasamhra etc. are the contribution of Dvaita to the linguistics.

In the field of ethics, a new philosophy of duty is developed, the will of the man is subordinated to the will of the God, a number of guidelines are laid down for the discipline and conduct. The service to the people at large is considered as the service to the God. The scope of the eligibility for the spiritual pursuit is extended to women and even anytajas.

In the field of theism, bhakti i.e., devotion and Prasada i.e., grace play a prominent role. Through the Haridasa literature a mass movement of Bhakti was initiated. Great Haridasas like Purandaradasa took the lead of this movement.

The Sarvamula Granthas and the commentaries thereon discuss these metaphysical, epistemological, epistemological and ethical issues threadbare. A separate introduction will be added to each work of Sarvamula granthas highlighting these issues as discussed in the respective works. Presently in this volume a summary of the issues discussed In Gitabhasya and Gitatatparya is given.




Part II











Sample Pages (Volume I)



गीतातात्पर्यनिर्णय: Gita Tatparya Nirnaya of Sri Anandatirtha (Set of 2 Volumes)

Item Code:
NZF718
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2007
Language:
Sanskrit
Size:
9.5 inch X 7.5 inch
Pages:
912
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Weight of the Book: 1.3 kg
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Part I


Preface

Bhagawad Gita advocates the philosophy of duty. this is based on the realistic world view, monotheism and universal ethics. In view of this, it appeals to all sections of the society. Sri Ananda tirtha has written two commentories on it, viz. Gitabhasya and Gitatatparya. Both these do not give word by word meaning, but bring out the philosophical message of Bhagavad Gita quoting ‘shruti’ and ‘smruti’ passages in support of these doctrines. In view of the importance of this work, later writers have composed commentaries and sub-commentories on it. The earlier commentary is ‘Prakasika’ of Sri Padmanabha Tirtha. Nyaya Dipika of Sri Jayatirtha gives full exposition of both Gitabhasya and Gita tatparya. On this four sub commentaries by Sri Raghavendra Tirtha, Sri Satyaprajna Tirtha, Sri Satyanatha tirtha and Tamraparni Acharya are available. These were not published so far and included in this volume for the first time. This work is planned in two volumes. The first volume contains the text and the commentaries of ten chapters. A detailed introduction in English is also added. It is hoped that this volume will be useful to the traditional and modern scholars and research students.

I express my thanks to Sri Krishnacharya Upadhyaya in assisting the editing of this volume. I also thank Vagartha for neat printing and get up.

Gitatatparya nirnaya
Introduction
Life and work of Sri Madhvacharya

Anandatirtha alias Sri Madhvacharya, the founder of the Dvaita Vedanta System of Indian Philosophy flourished during 1238 to 1317 A.D. He was born in the village Pajakaksetra near Udupi in the South Kanara District of Karnataka on the West coast of India. He was ordained to Sannyase by Achyuta Preksa when he was just 16 years old. His father Madhyageha Bhatta belonged to Pancaratra Bhagavata Vaisnava Sampradaya, and was well versed in ltihasa Purana. Madhvacharya started studying Advaita Vedanta texts like Istastddhi under Achyuta Preksa. He was not satisfied with the Advaita approach and took an independent line of approach to the sacred texts of the Vedic religion. He had a deep knowledge of Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition to which his father and a number of other families around belonged. These families had migrated from the North and the Central India due to the disturbed political conditions in that area. The Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition has been a strong theistic tradition of Vaisnava religion. The Advaita Vedanta that was propagated by Sankara a few centuries back had weakened the theistic foundation of Vedic religion by its concept of Nirguna Brahman. The Supreme God was relegated to a secondary position by his concept of Saguna Brahman as Isvara. The concept of Jaganmithyatva i.e. illusory nature of the world had led to a pessimistic approach to the life. Karmasanyasa was taken to be the ideal of life and the active life was considered as inferior level. Sri Madhvacharya did not approve of this approach to Vedanta Philosophy and set to interpret the source books of Vedanta Philosophy viz., Veda, Upanisads, Brahmasutra, Gita and ltihasa Purana to bring out the monotheism and the realism of Vedanta Philosophy. He propounded’ the philosophy of duty, devotion and dedication. He developed the purna Brahma concept as against the Nirguna Brahma concept of Sankara. He developed the Bimbaprattibimba relation concept between Brahman and Jiva as against the Identity concept of Sankara. He developed the Paramartika Satyatva concept of the world as against the Vyavaharika Satyatva concept of Sankara. Thus, the metaphysics of the two is basically opposed to each other. Consequently, the epistemology, ethics and the theism are also quite different.

II

To highlight the above doctrine Sri Madhvacharva composed thirty seven works which are known as Sarvamula Granthas. These are neatly planned as:


a) Bhasyas on Rgveda (first forty hymns), the ten principal Upanisads, Brahmasutra and Gita.
b) Ten Prakarana works.
c) The digests of Mahabharata and Bhagavata.
d) Three treatises on worship and conduct viz., Tantrasarasangraha, Sadacarasmrti and Krsnamrta Maharnava and a few stotras.

On Brahmasutras, in addition to the Bhasya he has composed three more commentaries among which Anuvyakhyana is most important. It runs into two thousand verses and discusses all important issues of Vedanta philosophy and reviews all the systems of Indian Philosophy. His chief commentator Sri Jayatirtha has written an extensive commentary viz., Nyayasudha on this work. Among the ten Prakarana wors, Visnutatvinirnaya is most important. In this work also topics like Veda apauruseyatva, bheda satyatva, Visnu sarvottamatva are discussed. The interpretation of important sruti passages like Tat tvam est ‘Ahern Brahma asmi’ are discussed.

Sri Madhvacharya does not confine the sources of Vedanta thought to Prasthanatrayi only. For him Itihasa Purana, particularly Mahabharata and Bhagavata are as much the sources of Vedanta thought as Prasthanatrayi. These embody the thoughts of the Pancaratra Bhagavata tradition. In order to bring out this rich thought and make it a part of Vedanta thought he composed the two digests vlz. Mahabharata tatparya nirnaya and Bhagavata tatparya nirnaya. A summary of the Ramayana is also included in the former. These works fully bring out the theology and ethics of Pancaratra Bhagavata Vaisnava tradition. He also takes the entire Veda as the source of Vedanta philosophy and demonstrates the philosophical meaning of Rgveda in his Rgbhasya. Among his stotra works. Dvadasa stotra has the depth of the philosophy, beauty of the poetry and the charm of the music. The entire plan of his Sarvamula works is not merely to propound a philosophical system but also to organise and consolidate a religious tradition and culture.

Such an organisation and consideration necessitated him to tour all over India twice, debate with the contemporary Scholars and build a following. He successfully built a following enrolling some eminent scholars of the time to his faith. Full details of his life and works are described in a Sanskrit biography viz. Sumadhva Vijaya and also described fully in the History of Dvaita Literature written by Dr. B.N.K. Sharma. The Sanskrit biography brings out his spiritual stature. He is described as an incarnation of Vayu and chief messenger of the God. Some of his miraculous acts are also described. His visit to Bedarikasrama in Himalayas is graphically described. He ordained four distinguished scholars of his time to Sanyasa. The senior most of them viz., Sri Padmanabhatlrtha, was earliest to comment on his works. Another contemporary scholar viz., Trivikrama Pandita also wrote a commentary on his Brahmasutre Bhasya. Sri Jayatirtha a successor of Padmanabhatirtha has written extensive commentaries on all major works of Sri Madhvacharva. In due course several distinguished scholars like Sri Vyasaraja. Sri Vadiraja, Sri Raghuttama, Sri Vidyadhisa, Sri Raghavendra etc. have enriched the literature of Dvaita Vedanta by their extensive commentaries.

The Sarvamula granthas have been the basis of this entire literature. This literature is a rich contribution to the Indian Philosophy literature both on the dialectical side and the interpretational side.

The Dvaita Vedanta’s contribution to the Indian Philosophical thought in the field of metaphysics consists of the concept of P{ITI)a Brahman as an independent principle and the Central reality, the Jiva and the Jagat as distinct but dependent realities, the concept of Visesa to explain the relation between the substance and its inseparable attributes, the concept of bheda i.e., the difference as real and as an internal attribute of every object, the concept of Paramanu as infinitely divisable, the unique concept of the time as pravahato nitya i.e., moving in a flux, the concept of Avyakrita Akasa i.e., non differentiated space, the concept of a kind of functional birth i.e., Paradhina Visesavapti even for the eternal objects and a few other subtle points.

In the field of epistemology the concept of Premenya Svatastva i.e., selfevident nature of the validity of knowledge, the concept of Saksin i.e. cognition of all knowledge by the self, the new theory of the truth and error, improvement in the structure of Syllogism constitute Dvaita Vedanta contribution. The concept of Paramamukhyavritti, the doctrine of Sarvasabda vschyetva, the utilisation of the cannons of interpretation Upakrama, Upasamhra etc. are the contribution of Dvaita to the linguistics.

In the field of ethics, a new philosophy of duty is developed, the will of the man is subordinated to the will of the God, a number of guidelines are laid down for the discipline and conduct. The service to the people at large is considered as the service to the God. The scope of the eligibility for the spiritual pursuit is extended to women and even anytajas.

In the field of theism, bhakti i.e., devotion and Prasada i.e., grace play a prominent role. Through the Haridasa literature a mass movement of Bhakti was initiated. Great Haridasas like Purandaradasa took the lead of this movement.

The Sarvamula Granthas and the commentaries thereon discuss these metaphysical, epistemological, epistemological and ethical issues threadbare. A separate introduction will be added to each work of Sarvamula granthas highlighting these issues as discussed in the respective works. Presently in this volume a summary of the issues discussed In Gitabhasya and Gitatatparya is given.




Part II











Sample Pages (Volume I)



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