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Books > Hindi > हिंदू धर्म > वेद > A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two
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A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two
A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two
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From the Jacket:

The history of the Vedanta school is well known since the time of Sankara but its prehistory before Sankara is quite obscure. However, there is a period of a thousand years between the compilation of the major Upanisads to Sankara without loss of the tradition of the Upanisads; there appeared many philosophers and dogmaticians, although their thoughts are not clearly known.

In A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, the author made clear the details of the pre-Sankara Vedanta philosophy, utilizing not only Sanskrit materials, but also Pali, Prakrit as well as Tibetan and Chinese sources. In this respect, this epoch-making work was awarded the Imperial Prize by the Japan Academy.

Nearly 60 years have already passed since its publication in Japanese. Meanwhile, new research has been reported in such fields as Bhartrhari and the like. Nevertheless, none can take the place of the author's achievement in the field of pre-Sankara Vedanta.

This Part Two is a complete English translation of Vols. III and IV of the Japanese version, with many additions and revisions done by the author himself.

Part One and Two will be important literature indispensable not only to those, who are specialists in the study of Vedanta but also to those engaged in the study of Indian thought in general.

About the Author:

Professor Hajime Nakamura, D.Litt. (University of Tokyo), Honorary D.Litt. (Government of India and Nehru University), was a distinguished scholar of international repute. He was a member of the Japan Academy and was decorated with the highest Japanese awards such as the medal of Culture and the First Order of the Sacred Treasure. Conferred further honorary degrees of Vidyavacaspati by the President of the Republic of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the honorary doctorate by the University of Delhi, Kuppu-Swami Research Institute, Chennai, he was also Visiting Professor at Harvard and Stanford universities. Founder-Director of the Eastern Institute and President of the Eastern Academy, Prof. Nakamura was a versatile and striking genius. He undertook research that was novel, original, and pioneering, and the number of his publications is astonishingly large. It is, however, regrettable that his works are mostly in Japanese.

Among his many scholastic achievements, the first to be mentioned is A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, here translated into English. Other important works are: The Selected Works of Hajime Nakamura in 40 volumes; The Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples; A Grand Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, in 3 volumes; The Illustrated Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, Parallel Developments, A Comparative History of Ideas; The Structure of Logic, in two volumes, and many others.

 

CONTENTS

 

           
Preface i
Abbreviations and Selected References

 

v
Part V Thinkers Subsequent to the Brahma-sutra
Chapter I General Remarks 3
Chapter II Tibetan Citations of Bhartrhari's Verses and the Problem of His Dates 9
Chapter III Upavarsa 29
  Section I Introduction 29
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 31
    Sub-Section I Upavarsa's Status as an Authority 31
    Sub-Section II His Works 32
    Sub-Section III His Life and His Dates 36
  Section III His Thought 37
  Appendix Upavarsa's Doctrine of the Foundation of Letter-Sounds as Seen in the Yogasutravivarana Attributed to Sankara 46
    I Introduction 46
    II Upavarsa as Cited in the Yogasutravivarana 47
    III Significance in the History of Thought 56
Chapter IV Bodhayana 61
  Section I Fragments 61
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 76
  Section III His Thought 82
Chapter V Tanka (Brahmanandin) 87
  Section I Fragments 87
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 99
  Section III His Thought 100
Chapter VI Dravida 104
  Section I Fragments 104
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 115
  Section III His Thought 120
Chapter VII Bhartrprapanca 128
  Section I Fragments 128
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 130
  Section III His Thought 133
    Sub-Section 1 His Theory of Knowledge 135
    Sub-Section 2 Brahman and Its Evolution 136
    Sub-Section 3 Religious Practice 149
Chapter VIII Sabarasvamin 153
  Section I The Man, His Works and His Dates 153
  Section II Thought: Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory 155
    Sub-Section 1 Introduction 155
    Sub-Section 2 Characteristics of Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory 156
Chapter IX Bhartrmitra 170
Chapter X Srivatsankamisra 174
Chapter XI Sundarapandya 176
Chapter XII Brahmandatta 181
Chapter XIII Govinda 185
Chapter XIV Mandanamisra 188
Chapter XV Fragmentary Transmissions of Various Differing Theories 191
  Section I Different Theories Concerning Atman 191
  Section II Heretical Theories Concerning Emancipation 193
  Section III Heretical Exegeses of the Brahma-sutra 194
  Section IV Commentators on the Chandogya-Upanisad and the Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad 195
  Section V Pre-Sankara Commentators on the Bhagavad-Gita - Pisaca, Rantideva, Gupta, et al. 198
  Section VI Jnananidhi 204
  Section VII Forerunners of the Advaita Theories

 

205
Part VI The Mandukya-Karika
Introduction 211
Chapter I Interpretations of Some Words and Phrases of the Mandukya-Upanisad and Karika 214
  Section I Some Notes on the Verse VII of the Mandukya-Upanisad 215
  Section II Some Notes on the Mandukya-Karika 219
    Sub-Section 1 Agama 219
    Sub-Section 2 Vaitathya (Illusoriness) 221
    Sub-Section 3 Advaita 230
    Sub-Section 4 Alatasanti 236
  Appendix Interpretations of Some Technical Terms that Occur Often in the Mandukya-Karika 253
    I Buddha, sambuddha 253
    II dharma 254
    III paramartha 255
    IV The Simile of Alatacakra 256
Chapter II Textual Analysis 257
  Section I Various Names of the Mandukya-karika 257
  Section II Commentaries on the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika 259
  Section III Changes in the Authoritativeness of the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika 267
    Sub-Section 1 The Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika as Viewed in Early Advaita 268
    Sub-Section 2 The Later Status of the Mandukya-Upanisad in India 272
    Sub-Section 3 Changes in the Evaluation of the Mandukya-Karika 274
      1 Schools other than the Advaita come to take the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika as a sruti 274
      2 The later Advaita school also concurs that the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika is a sruti 276
      3 All four chapters of the Mandukya-Karika come to be regarded as Upanisads 278
      4 Conclusion 280
  Section IV The Compilation of the Mandukhya-Upanisad and the Mandukya-Karika 283
    Sub-Section 1 The Compilation of the Mandukya-Upanisad 283
    Sub-Section 2 Examination of the Characteristics of the Chapters of the Mandukya-Karika 287
      1 Examination of the First Chapter 287
      2 Examination of the Second Chapter 292
      3 Examination of the Third Chapter 296
      4 Examination of the Fourth Chapter 297
      5 Conclusions 302
    Sub-Section 3 Gaudapada and the Compilation of the Mandukya-Karika 307
Chapter III Thought 314
  Section I The Standpoint to the Karika 314
  Section II The Absolute and the Phenomenal World 317
    Sub-Section 1 The Four State (padas) of Brahman 317
      A The Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad 317
      B The Theory in the First Chapter of the Karikas 323
    Sub-Section 2 The Doctrine of Maya 328
      A The Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas 328
      B The Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas 332
    Sub-Section 3 The Vijnanavada Theory as Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Mandukya-Karika 340
  Section III Practice 359
    Sub-Section 1 Meditation on OM (The Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad and the First Chapter of the Karikas) 359
    Sub-Section 2 The Life of Ascetic Wandering Dedicated to Meditation on Atman (The Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas) 362
    Sub-Section 3 Asparsayoga (The Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas) 365
    Sub-Section 4 The Practice of Consciousness-Only (The Theory Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Karikas) 369
  Section IV Opposition and Reconciliation of World-Views 373
    Sub-Section 1 The Unified Standpoint 373
    Sub-Section 2 The Raison d'Etre of Heretical Theories 374
    Sub-Section 3 The Avivada (Non-Disputation) Theory 377
    Sub-Section 4 Synthesis and Reconciliation of Differing Theories in the Scriptures

 

382
Part VII The Vedanta Philosophy of the Grammarian Bhartrhari
Introduction 393
Chapter I The Grammarian Bhartrhari: The Man and His Works 412
  Section I His Works 412
  Section II The Man 426
Chapter II The Position of Bhartrhari in the History of Thought 430
  Section I The Tradition of Grammar and Its Revival by Bhartrhari 430
    Sub-Section 1 Introduction 430
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari's Account of the Tradition of Grammar 432
    Sub-Section 3 The Conditions of the Study of Grammar up until Bhartrhari 436
      I The Completion of the Samgraha of Vyadi (c.300 BC) 436
      II From Vyadi to Patanjali (c.300-150 BC) 438
      III The Composition of the Mahabhasya by Patanjali 438
      IV The Rise of Heterodox Grammar and the Decline of Orthodox Grammar (150BC. - 200AD.) 440
      V The Revival of the Orthodox Grammar by the Master Candra (Latter Half of the Third Century) 442
      VI The Restoration of the Study of Grammar by Vasurata (c.400-450) 444
        Appendix The Date of Candragomin 448
    Sub-Section 4 The Position of Bhartrhari in the History of the Study of Grammar 455
  Section II Bhartrhari as Vedantin 457
  Section III Bhartrhari and Buddhism 460
    Sub-Section 1 The Legend that Bhartrhari was a Follower of Buddhism 460
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari as Seen by the Buddhists 462
    Sub-Section 3 "Examination of Brahman as Words" (Sabda-brahma-pariksa) in the Tattvasamgraha 464
    Sub-Section 4 Bhartrhari's Criticism of the Buddhist Theory 481
    Sub-Section 5 Buddhist Influence upon the Vakyapadiya 489
    Sub-Section 6 Conclusion 500
Chapter III Bhartrhari the Scholar 503
  Section I Bhartrhari's Theory Concerning the Sacred Books 503
  Section II The Significance of Bhartrhari's Scholarship as a Grammarian 507
  Section III Bhartrhari's Theory on Knowledge 513
  Appendix Western Parallels 529
Chapter IV Metaphysics 531
  Section I Absolute Brahman 531
    Sub-Section 1 Brahman in the True Sense 531
    Sub-Section 2 The Argumentation to Prove the Unlimitedness of Brahman 534
      I The Negation of Indentity-Difference, Being-Non-Being 535
      II The Negation of Change 539
      III Comparison with the Traditional Definitions of Brahman 542
    Sub-Section 3 Brahman as the Basis of Differentiated Aspects 545
  Section II Words 548
    Sub-Section 1 The Pre-History of the Metaphysics of Language 549
      I Words as the Highest Principle in the Vedas 549
      II The Concept of sabdabrahman in Later Upanisads and Epics 552
      III The Theory of World Evolution from Word in Orthodox Brahmin Tradition 554
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari's Theory of Words 556
      I The Relationship between Words and Meaning 556
      II Thee Essence of Generality 567
  Section III Sphota 577
    Sub-Section 1 The Origin of the Concept of Sphota 577
      I Formation of the Concept of Sphota 578
      II Views on the Exxence of the Word before Bhartrhari 585
    Sub-Section 2 The Meaning of Sphota 589
    Sub-Section 3 Sentence and Sphota 602
  Section IV Evolution of the World 611
    Sub-Section 1 The Potential of World Evolution 611
    Sub-Section 2 Material Cause of World Evolution 614
    Sub-Section 3 Change in the Phenomenal World 618
    Sub-Section 4 The Cause of the World and Its Relation to the Phenomenal World 625
    Sub-Section 5 The Problem of Contradiction 630
  Section V The Individual Self 632
    Sub-Section 1 Atman 632
    Sub-Section 2 Human Activities 637
  Section VI Practice 648
    Sub-Section 1 Esteem of the Regulations in the Sacred Texts 648
    Sub-Section 2 The Correct Use of Language 649
    Sub-Section 3 Liberation 656
  Section VII Confrontation and Reconciliation in Views of the World

 

660
Part VIII Conclusion
Chapter I The Position of Sankara in the History of Vedanta Philosophy 671
Chapter II A Summary of the History of Early Vedanta Philosophy 685
Appendices  
  A Supplement to A Hisoty of Early Vedanta Philosophy, Part One 697
    I The Part of "The Vedanta Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamakahr-daya" 697
    II The Part of "The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya in Madhyamakahrdaya and Tarkajvala" 712
    III "upasana" 715
    IV Other 717
  B Some New Light on Sankara 722
   

I

Conflict between Traditionalism and Rationalism: A Problem with Sankara 722
      1 The Significance of the Vedic Scriptures 722
      2 Traditionalism and Rationalism 724
      3 The Standard of Knowledge 728
   

II

Meditation in Sankara 734
      1 Meditation and Yoga 734
      2 Special Charcter of Meditation 736
      3 Teaching 737
      4 The Varieties of Meditation 738
      5 Meditation is Action 742
      6 The Reward of Teachings 744
      7 Practice of Meditation 749
      8 Identity and Differences in Teaching 750
      9 Conclusion 754
      10 Some Remarks in Comparison with Zen Meditation 754
    III The Practice of Yoga as is Represented in Sankara's Yogasutra-bhasyavivarana 756
    IV The View of Yoga in Sankara's Brahma-sutra Commentary and Its Mediaeval Character 765
    V Sankara's Vivarana on the Yogasutra-bhasya 768
    VI A Review of V.M. Apte (trnsl.): Brahma-sutra Shankara-bhashya 776
    VII An Interview with Sankaracarya of Kancipuram 781
Index 785
Postscript 839

 


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A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two

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From the Jacket:

The history of the Vedanta school is well known since the time of Sankara but its prehistory before Sankara is quite obscure. However, there is a period of a thousand years between the compilation of the major Upanisads to Sankara without loss of the tradition of the Upanisads; there appeared many philosophers and dogmaticians, although their thoughts are not clearly known.

In A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, the author made clear the details of the pre-Sankara Vedanta philosophy, utilizing not only Sanskrit materials, but also Pali, Prakrit as well as Tibetan and Chinese sources. In this respect, this epoch-making work was awarded the Imperial Prize by the Japan Academy.

Nearly 60 years have already passed since its publication in Japanese. Meanwhile, new research has been reported in such fields as Bhartrhari and the like. Nevertheless, none can take the place of the author's achievement in the field of pre-Sankara Vedanta.

This Part Two is a complete English translation of Vols. III and IV of the Japanese version, with many additions and revisions done by the author himself.

Part One and Two will be important literature indispensable not only to those, who are specialists in the study of Vedanta but also to those engaged in the study of Indian thought in general.

About the Author:

Professor Hajime Nakamura, D.Litt. (University of Tokyo), Honorary D.Litt. (Government of India and Nehru University), was a distinguished scholar of international repute. He was a member of the Japan Academy and was decorated with the highest Japanese awards such as the medal of Culture and the First Order of the Sacred Treasure. Conferred further honorary degrees of Vidyavacaspati by the President of the Republic of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the honorary doctorate by the University of Delhi, Kuppu-Swami Research Institute, Chennai, he was also Visiting Professor at Harvard and Stanford universities. Founder-Director of the Eastern Institute and President of the Eastern Academy, Prof. Nakamura was a versatile and striking genius. He undertook research that was novel, original, and pioneering, and the number of his publications is astonishingly large. It is, however, regrettable that his works are mostly in Japanese.

Among his many scholastic achievements, the first to be mentioned is A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, here translated into English. Other important works are: The Selected Works of Hajime Nakamura in 40 volumes; The Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples; A Grand Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, in 3 volumes; The Illustrated Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, Parallel Developments, A Comparative History of Ideas; The Structure of Logic, in two volumes, and many others.

 

CONTENTS

 

           
Preface i
Abbreviations and Selected References

 

v
Part V Thinkers Subsequent to the Brahma-sutra
Chapter I General Remarks 3
Chapter II Tibetan Citations of Bhartrhari's Verses and the Problem of His Dates 9
Chapter III Upavarsa 29
  Section I Introduction 29
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 31
    Sub-Section I Upavarsa's Status as an Authority 31
    Sub-Section II His Works 32
    Sub-Section III His Life and His Dates 36
  Section III His Thought 37
  Appendix Upavarsa's Doctrine of the Foundation of Letter-Sounds as Seen in the Yogasutravivarana Attributed to Sankara 46
    I Introduction 46
    II Upavarsa as Cited in the Yogasutravivarana 47
    III Significance in the History of Thought 56
Chapter IV Bodhayana 61
  Section I Fragments 61
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 76
  Section III His Thought 82
Chapter V Tanka (Brahmanandin) 87
  Section I Fragments 87
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 99
  Section III His Thought 100
Chapter VI Dravida 104
  Section I Fragments 104
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 115
  Section III His Thought 120
Chapter VII Bhartrprapanca 128
  Section I Fragments 128
  Section II The Man, His Works and His Dates 130
  Section III His Thought 133
    Sub-Section 1 His Theory of Knowledge 135
    Sub-Section 2 Brahman and Its Evolution 136
    Sub-Section 3 Religious Practice 149
Chapter VIII Sabarasvamin 153
  Section I The Man, His Works and His Dates 153
  Section II Thought: Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory 155
    Sub-Section 1 Introduction 155
    Sub-Section 2 Characteristics of Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory 156
Chapter IX Bhartrmitra 170
Chapter X Srivatsankamisra 174
Chapter XI Sundarapandya 176
Chapter XII Brahmandatta 181
Chapter XIII Govinda 185
Chapter XIV Mandanamisra 188
Chapter XV Fragmentary Transmissions of Various Differing Theories 191
  Section I Different Theories Concerning Atman 191
  Section II Heretical Theories Concerning Emancipation 193
  Section III Heretical Exegeses of the Brahma-sutra 194
  Section IV Commentators on the Chandogya-Upanisad and the Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad 195
  Section V Pre-Sankara Commentators on the Bhagavad-Gita - Pisaca, Rantideva, Gupta, et al. 198
  Section VI Jnananidhi 204
  Section VII Forerunners of the Advaita Theories

 

205
Part VI The Mandukya-Karika
Introduction 211
Chapter I Interpretations of Some Words and Phrases of the Mandukya-Upanisad and Karika 214
  Section I Some Notes on the Verse VII of the Mandukya-Upanisad 215
  Section II Some Notes on the Mandukya-Karika 219
    Sub-Section 1 Agama 219
    Sub-Section 2 Vaitathya (Illusoriness) 221
    Sub-Section 3 Advaita 230
    Sub-Section 4 Alatasanti 236
  Appendix Interpretations of Some Technical Terms that Occur Often in the Mandukya-Karika 253
    I Buddha, sambuddha 253
    II dharma 254
    III paramartha 255
    IV The Simile of Alatacakra 256
Chapter II Textual Analysis 257
  Section I Various Names of the Mandukya-karika 257
  Section II Commentaries on the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika 259
  Section III Changes in the Authoritativeness of the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika 267
    Sub-Section 1 The Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika as Viewed in Early Advaita 268
    Sub-Section 2 The Later Status of the Mandukya-Upanisad in India 272
    Sub-Section 3 Changes in the Evaluation of the Mandukya-Karika 274
      1 Schools other than the Advaita come to take the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika as a sruti 274
      2 The later Advaita school also concurs that the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika is a sruti 276
      3 All four chapters of the Mandukya-Karika come to be regarded as Upanisads 278
      4 Conclusion 280
  Section IV The Compilation of the Mandukhya-Upanisad and the Mandukya-Karika 283
    Sub-Section 1 The Compilation of the Mandukya-Upanisad 283
    Sub-Section 2 Examination of the Characteristics of the Chapters of the Mandukya-Karika 287
      1 Examination of the First Chapter 287
      2 Examination of the Second Chapter 292
      3 Examination of the Third Chapter 296
      4 Examination of the Fourth Chapter 297
      5 Conclusions 302
    Sub-Section 3 Gaudapada and the Compilation of the Mandukya-Karika 307
Chapter III Thought 314
  Section I The Standpoint to the Karika 314
  Section II The Absolute and the Phenomenal World 317
    Sub-Section 1 The Four State (padas) of Brahman 317
      A The Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad 317
      B The Theory in the First Chapter of the Karikas 323
    Sub-Section 2 The Doctrine of Maya 328
      A The Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas 328
      B The Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas 332
    Sub-Section 3 The Vijnanavada Theory as Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Mandukya-Karika 340
  Section III Practice 359
    Sub-Section 1 Meditation on OM (The Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad and the First Chapter of the Karikas) 359
    Sub-Section 2 The Life of Ascetic Wandering Dedicated to Meditation on Atman (The Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas) 362
    Sub-Section 3 Asparsayoga (The Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas) 365
    Sub-Section 4 The Practice of Consciousness-Only (The Theory Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Karikas) 369
  Section IV Opposition and Reconciliation of World-Views 373
    Sub-Section 1 The Unified Standpoint 373
    Sub-Section 2 The Raison d'Etre of Heretical Theories 374
    Sub-Section 3 The Avivada (Non-Disputation) Theory 377
    Sub-Section 4 Synthesis and Reconciliation of Differing Theories in the Scriptures

 

382
Part VII The Vedanta Philosophy of the Grammarian Bhartrhari
Introduction 393
Chapter I The Grammarian Bhartrhari: The Man and His Works 412
  Section I His Works 412
  Section II The Man 426
Chapter II The Position of Bhartrhari in the History of Thought 430
  Section I The Tradition of Grammar and Its Revival by Bhartrhari 430
    Sub-Section 1 Introduction 430
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari's Account of the Tradition of Grammar 432
    Sub-Section 3 The Conditions of the Study of Grammar up until Bhartrhari 436
      I The Completion of the Samgraha of Vyadi (c.300 BC) 436
      II From Vyadi to Patanjali (c.300-150 BC) 438
      III The Composition of the Mahabhasya by Patanjali 438
      IV The Rise of Heterodox Grammar and the Decline of Orthodox Grammar (150BC. - 200AD.) 440
      V The Revival of the Orthodox Grammar by the Master Candra (Latter Half of the Third Century) 442
      VI The Restoration of the Study of Grammar by Vasurata (c.400-450) 444
        Appendix The Date of Candragomin 448
    Sub-Section 4 The Position of Bhartrhari in the History of the Study of Grammar 455
  Section II Bhartrhari as Vedantin 457
  Section III Bhartrhari and Buddhism 460
    Sub-Section 1 The Legend that Bhartrhari was a Follower of Buddhism 460
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari as Seen by the Buddhists 462
    Sub-Section 3 "Examination of Brahman as Words" (Sabda-brahma-pariksa) in the Tattvasamgraha 464
    Sub-Section 4 Bhartrhari's Criticism of the Buddhist Theory 481
    Sub-Section 5 Buddhist Influence upon the Vakyapadiya 489
    Sub-Section 6 Conclusion 500
Chapter III Bhartrhari the Scholar 503
  Section I Bhartrhari's Theory Concerning the Sacred Books 503
  Section II The Significance of Bhartrhari's Scholarship as a Grammarian 507
  Section III Bhartrhari's Theory on Knowledge 513
  Appendix Western Parallels 529
Chapter IV Metaphysics 531
  Section I Absolute Brahman 531
    Sub-Section 1 Brahman in the True Sense 531
    Sub-Section 2 The Argumentation to Prove the Unlimitedness of Brahman 534
      I The Negation of Indentity-Difference, Being-Non-Being 535
      II The Negation of Change 539
      III Comparison with the Traditional Definitions of Brahman 542
    Sub-Section 3 Brahman as the Basis of Differentiated Aspects 545
  Section II Words 548
    Sub-Section 1 The Pre-History of the Metaphysics of Language 549
      I Words as the Highest Principle in the Vedas 549
      II The Concept of sabdabrahman in Later Upanisads and Epics 552
      III The Theory of World Evolution from Word in Orthodox Brahmin Tradition 554
    Sub-Section 2 Bhartrhari's Theory of Words 556
      I The Relationship between Words and Meaning 556
      II Thee Essence of Generality 567
  Section III Sphota 577
    Sub-Section 1 The Origin of the Concept of Sphota 577
      I Formation of the Concept of Sphota 578
      II Views on the Exxence of the Word before Bhartrhari 585
    Sub-Section 2 The Meaning of Sphota 589
    Sub-Section 3 Sentence and Sphota 602
  Section IV Evolution of the World 611
    Sub-Section 1 The Potential of World Evolution 611
    Sub-Section 2 Material Cause of World Evolution 614
    Sub-Section 3 Change in the Phenomenal World 618
    Sub-Section 4 The Cause of the World and Its Relation to the Phenomenal World 625
    Sub-Section 5 The Problem of Contradiction 630
  Section V The Individual Self 632
    Sub-Section 1 Atman 632
    Sub-Section 2 Human Activities 637
  Section VI Practice 648
    Sub-Section 1 Esteem of the Regulations in the Sacred Texts 648
    Sub-Section 2 The Correct Use of Language 649
    Sub-Section 3 Liberation 656
  Section VII Confrontation and Reconciliation in Views of the World

 

660
Part VIII Conclusion
Chapter I The Position of Sankara in the History of Vedanta Philosophy 671
Chapter II A Summary of the History of Early Vedanta Philosophy 685
Appendices  
  A Supplement to A Hisoty of Early Vedanta Philosophy, Part One 697
    I The Part of "The Vedanta Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamakahr-daya" 697
    II The Part of "The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya in Madhyamakahrdaya and Tarkajvala" 712
    III "upasana" 715
    IV Other 717
  B Some New Light on Sankara 722
   

I

Conflict between Traditionalism and Rationalism: A Problem with Sankara 722
      1 The Significance of the Vedic Scriptures 722
      2 Traditionalism and Rationalism 724
      3 The Standard of Knowledge 728
   

II

Meditation in Sankara 734
      1 Meditation and Yoga 734
      2 Special Charcter of Meditation 736
      3 Teaching 737
      4 The Varieties of Meditation 738
      5 Meditation is Action 742
      6 The Reward of Teachings 744
      7 Practice of Meditation 749
      8 Identity and Differences in Teaching 750
      9 Conclusion 754
      10 Some Remarks in Comparison with Zen Meditation 754
    III The Practice of Yoga as is Represented in Sankara's Yogasutra-bhasyavivarana 756
    IV The View of Yoga in Sankara's Brahma-sutra Commentary and Its Mediaeval Character 765
    V Sankara's Vivarana on the Yogasutra-bhasya 768
    VI A Review of V.M. Apte (trnsl.): Brahma-sutra Shankara-bhashya 776
    VII An Interview with Sankaracarya of Kancipuram 781
Index 785
Postscript 839

 


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