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Introduction to Buddhist Art
Introduction to Buddhist Art
Description
Preface
This book is a panoramic survey of the history of Buddhist art from its origins in India to its final efflorescence in Japan. Prof. Yamamoto gives the main outlines of its evolution in India, Srilanka, Indonesia, Kambuja, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan, China, Koria and Japan. Beginning with the Asokan pillars with their infact capitals, Sanci, Bhaja, Andhra, Bharhat, Mathura, Ajanta, Bedsa, Nasik, Pithalkora, it covers all the major Buddhist monuments of India. The techniques of the early Gandhara School have been described at length for all parts of the body (head, eyebrow, nose eyes mouth ear face throat etc.) and halo, kasaya, mudra, posture, colouring, etc. Prof. Yamamoto presents in a succinct manner his own observations of a life- time study of the Gandhara School in the early period when it was dominantly stucco images. Mathura school in the Kushan period when it was dominantly stucco images. Mathura school in the Kushan period and its relationship to Gandhara has been detailed. He has adduenced reasons for the ivories of Begram to have been carved at Mathura (p.55). Chapter on the Gupta period is of special significance as the Gupta idiom had a wide- ranging influence on the while of Buddhist art. The Buddha statues in Mathura and Sarnath have been compared. The diffusion of the Buddha statues of Sarnath to South East Asia takes us to further Asia.

The third part dealing with Central Asia is indeed rich as some of the materials have been presented in English for the first time. The extensive description of the Bamiyan caves includes the studies of the two expeditions of the Nagoya and Kyoto universities. The numbering of all the caves at Bamiyan have been referred to. The Buddhist remains on the southern and northern routes of Chinese Turkistan comprise stupas, caves and monasteries. The details of the Qyzil caves from Grunwedel are welcome as they have been inaccessible ever since he wrote his report in German. Prof. Yamamoto has done a service to students of Buddhist art by presenting the salient features of the researches of Chinese scholars on caves in China published in the Heibonsha series in Japanese.

The fourth part is a Buddhist art in China. Beginning with the Yunkang caves he describes the major developments of Buddhist art in China. The Tunhuang caves incorporate new researches by Chinese scholars published in Heibonsha's Tonko-bakokutsu. These have been presented in English for the first time. Prof. Yamamoto breaks new ground in pointing out the emergence and development of the Gupta-Tang style. His presentation of rare researches in French, German and Japanese in an overall view of Buddhist art is supplemented by his life-long studies of the subject. He also covers new cave -complexes which have been discovered in China since the 1950s and these add to the usefulness of this survey of Buddhist art. An excursus on one of these newly discovered grottos namely ping-ling-ssu (now written Binglingsi) from the Heibonsha volume will highlight the rich fare of artistic heritage that awaits wider circulation in English so that inter-disciplinary and inter- regional comparative studies can culation in English so that Inter- disciplinary and inter-regional comparative studies can be taken up.

THE BINGLINGSI CAVES were discovered in 1953 and the news reached Japan the same year. It was a great excitement for all experts of Buddhist art. In 1986 the Japanese published a preliminary report. The Chinese Government sent a survey team from July to August 1953. The Chinese monk Eko (497-554), in his Biographies of Eminent Monks, says that Shaku Genko practiced meditation in these caves with his disciples.Suikyochu written by Dogen (469-527) also refers to the Binglingsi caves. The work Hoenjurin mentions that caves were excavated in the mountain during his time, which means 668 A.D. and a number of monks were practising there. The existence of these caves was known to the world only through literary references until 1953. Restoration of the caves has been going on ever since their discovery. Staircases have been constructed for access to the caves. In 1953 a second survey of cave 169 was done. It has the oldest Buddhist sculptures of the Western Chin dynasty. It is in the highest part of the mountain and its survey was really a hazardous undertaking.

The Binglingsi is situated alongside the Yellow River along the Northern Valley in Mount Shoshakuseki. They are famous as stone cave temples. These caves can be divided into upper and lower groups, with a number of natural caves in between. The total number of caves is 196. Majority is concentrated in the lower level, which comprise 184 caves, among them 40 are caves and 144 are niches. The lower group has 694 big and small stone sculptures and 82 stucco images. The horizontal length of the wall paintings reaches 912 square meters. The highest standing sculpture is 27 meters high, and the smallest is 0.20 meters. The lower group is situated along the straight wall of the valley of the western Daijiko, which is surrounded by high and steep Rocky Mountains. In front of the caves runs the Yellow River. It presents a spectacular panorama.

Achievements of Binglingsi during the Western Chin (p.213). The sculptures in Cave 169 tell us the general situation of Western Chin art. If we compare them with sculptures in Gandhara, Central Asia and China, then we can know the traditions of Buddhist art in China at that early age, and the actual development of varying characteristics at different places. The sitting Buddhist statues of Cave 169 wear robes over both shoulders are in padmasana and in dhyana mudra except one stucco statue, which is inscribed in the first year of the Kengu era, wears a robe on the left shoulder while the right shoulder is bare. The artists at Qyzil were more inclined to express spiritual joy and blissful fulfillment. Artists at Ryoshu and Western Chin seek both serenity and bliss in a form to manifest accomplishment of wisdom in meditation and joyfulness to be demonstrated in vast compassion. Expressions of the Buddhas in meditation and the naturalness of their transparent robs demonstrate excellence of artistic quality. If we compare them with bronze Buddhas that appeared during the same period the distinct accomplishment of the stone sculptors can be recognized. Bronze statues are still in the condition of imitation but stucco and stone sculptures have made quite a progress. This fact should be noticed.

The statue made in the first year of Kengu is Amitabha Buddha (pl. 21) with a high usnisa half closed eyes and the hands in dhyana mudra. It depicts the attainment of Buddhahood by bhiksu Dharmagarbha. The expression of the face is dignified and distinct from other Buddha- statues that means: the artists at that time had understood differing qualities of the various materials and at the same time the artists sought expression in accord with their raw material. Artists have to describe the Supreme Buddhas actualizing their state for the visualization by the devotee. We can find similarities between this statue made in the first year of kengu and the earlier ones, which also have the left shoulder bare, found in Caves 77, 78 of Mount Bakushaku. These are bigger in scale are forceful in spiritual grandeur. The statues at Yun-kang caves developed these aspects.

From the Jacket

This book is a panoramic survey of the history of Buddhist art from its origins in India to its final efflorescence in Japan. Prof. Chikyo Yamamoto gives the main outline of its evolution in India, SriLanka, Indonesia, Kambuja, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan, China, Korea and Japan. Beginning with the Asokan pillars with their intact capitals and Sanci, it covers all the major Buddhist monuments of India. The techniques of the early Gandhara School have been described at length for all parts of the body. The author presents in a succinct manner his own observations of a life time study of the Gandhara school in the early period when it was mostly stone sculpture and in the later period when it was mostly stone sculpture and in the latter period when it was dominantly stucco images. Character on the Gupta period is of special significance as the Gupta idiom had a wide ranging influenced on the Buddhist art of the whole of Asia. The diffusion of the Buddha statues of Sarnath to South East Asia takes us to the second part dealing with further Asia.

The fourth part is a history of Buddhist art in China. Beginning with the Yun-kang caves he describes its major developments. The Tun-huang caves incorporate new researches by Chinese scholars published in Heibonsha'sTonko bakkokutsu. These have been presented in English for the first time. Prof. Yamamoto breaks new ground in pointing out of the emergence and development of the Gupta- Tang style. He also covers new cave complexes which have been discovered in China since the 1950s and these add to the usefulness of this survey of Buddhist art.

The final Fifth part surveys the Buddhist art of Korea and Japan in its overall development in East Asia. His presentation of rare researches in French German and Japanese is supplemented by his life long studies of the subject.

The Author
Prof. Chikyo Yamamoto is the doyen of Japanese scholars of Buddhist art. Born in 1910 he studied at the Koyasan University under one of the foremost art- historians of Japan Prof. Germmyo Ono, a co-editor of the last twelve volumes 89-100 of the Taisho editions of the Chinese Tripitaka on Buddhist iconography. From 1936 to 1939 he studied Sanskrit and Gandharodyana Art with the leading Ideologist Prof. Raghu Vira at Lahore and worked on the iconometry of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas for his Ph.D. For this he traveled to all the archaeological sites in India and look over ten thousand photographs. He translated The L'Inde Classique into Japanese. Among his recent English works are Introduction to the Mandala(Kyoto, 1980) History of Mantrayana in Japan (New Delhi, 1987),Mahavairocana-Sutra(New Delhi, 1990) translated from Chinese into English and the present book. He has completed a "History of Indian Art" in Japanese with 2,000 photographs, and is currently engaged in translating the works of Kobo Daishi at the age of eighty springs. Professor emeritus at the Koyasan, University and formerly Director of the Reihokan Museum Koyasan.

Contents
Introduction1
India 1, Srilanka 3, Java, Sumatra, Kamboja, Champa, Thailand, Burma 4, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan 5, China 6, Korea, Japan 8.
Part I. India
I.1Ancient India13
The stupa at Piprahwa, stone pillare of Asoka, Barabar Caves 13, the yaksa statue found at Parkham, Yaksi from Didarganj, the Sunga period (176-70 B.C.), stupa 2 at Sanci 14, Bhaja Caves 15, caitya at Kondane, ruined monasteries in Andhra, Bhattiprolu 16, Jaggayyapeta, Guntupalle, Bharat 17, terracottas in the Sunga Age Bugghagaya 19, Mathura, group of caves in western India: Ajanta 21, Bedsa, Nasik 22, Pithalkora 23, Cave 48 caitya in the group 3 at Karadh, Sailarwadi, Sanci 24, Satavahana dynasty 26, Udayagiri, Orissa 27, Junnar, Tulja Lena, Ambarika caitya 28, Karli 29
I.2The Earlier Gandhara School31
Buddhism in north -west India, Dharmarajika stupa 31, Kalawan, Hathial, Gandhara, Takht-I-Bahai Sahri-bohlol, Jamalgarhi, Shahbazgarhi 32, Shah -ji-ki dheri, Udyana 33, Buner, Manikyala, Afghanistan, Nagarahara, Kapisa, development of the stupa 34, the bas-reliefs of the Gandhara school, jatakas and the life of the Buddha 36, general description of bas-reliefs 42, image of the Buddha 43, statues of Bodhisattvas, statues of the gods, conclusions of the Gandhara school 46
I.3Mathura school in the Kushan period48
Architecture, the statue of the Buddha 48, conclusion on the Buddha statues of Gandhara and Mathura 51, statues of Bodhisattvas, Jaina statues 52, statues of Surya, Hindu sculptures, statues of yakasas, statues of nagas, statues of goddesses 53, yaksis, statues of men 54, ivories from Begram 55, domestic scenes on the stone sculptures at Mathura, decorative designs 57
I.4Caves of western India59
History of the period, Ajanta cave 9, group of caves at Nasik 59, group of caves at Junnar 61, Kanheri 62
I.5The Andhra school64
Amaravati 64, Nagarjunakonda 65, sculptures of the Andhra school, Jataka stories, life of the Buddha 66, the statue of the Buddha 68
I.6The Gandhara school70
History of the epoch 70, remains of the later Gandhra school, Mohra- Moradu Jaulian 71, Jalalabad, ancient Kabul, the technique of stucco images 72
I.7The Gupta period74
History of the period, art in the Gupta period, monuments in the early Gupta period , group of caves at Udayagiri 74, Sanci 76, Garhwa, the Mathura school in the Gupta period 77, the Sarnath school in the Gupta period a short history 80, the relation of the Buddha statues in Mathura and Sarnath 82, the diffusion of the Buddha statues made and Sarnath to South -east Asia 83, the statue of the Bidhisattva 84, group of caves at Ajanta 85
I.8The beginning of the Mediaeval period90
Nalanda, Aurangabad 90, Ellora, art in the Pala period 91, general outline of the Buddha statues in Pala style 92
Part II. South -East Asia95
II.1Srilanka97
Buddhist stupas in Srilanka : Anuradhapura, Ruwanweli dagaba 98, Miriswetiya dagaba, Kanthaka -cetiya (Mihintable), the big stupa of Abhayagiri the big stupa of Jetavana 99, the huge rock at Sigiriya, influence of the Andhra school of art, Isurumuniya, Polonnaruwa 100, Gal -vihara, Lankatilaka, Rankot-dagaba, Sat-mahal-prasada, Wata-dague, a royal palace 101, traces of esoteric Buddhism 102
II.2Java103
Propagation of Indian culture in Java 103, the Buddhist monuments in java 105, Mendut a Garbha-mandala 106, Pawon 108, Borobudor, the Vajradhatu- mandala 109, Sewu, Kalasan 112, Plaosan 113, art in Java 114
II.3Sumatra115
Srivijaya, Palembang 115, Malaya Peninsula 118, Borneo, Celebes 119
II.4Kamboja121
Funan 121, art of Funan, kingdom of Chenla 122, stone temples, statues in the Chenla period 123, from Chenla to the Khmer empire, the old capital of Angkor Thom 124, architecture, Classical Khmer architecture 126, Prah Vihear, Prah Khan 128, Angkor Thom 129, Angkor Vat 130, Buddha statues in the Angkor period 131
II.5Champa134
Simhapura, Indrapura 134, PoNagar, architecture of Champa 135, remains of sculptures in Champa 137
II.6Thailand138
A Short history 138, dedicatory, tablets of Buddhism 139, the Dvaravati art and the Buddha statue in Sarnath style 140, Srivijaya art, Khmer art, Thai art 141, architecture and painting 142
II.7Burma144
A brief history 144, Pagan, Buddhist stupa in Burma 145, sculptures and wall- paintings 147
Part III. Central Asia149
III.1Afghanistan151
Bamiyan caves, cave 33,35: 151, caves 51 (G), 70,71,72 (F), 72: 152, caves 119,129,140,155:153, cave 165: 155, caves 16,222, 223: 156, caves 330, 404: 157, caves 471, 530: 158, caves 590, 620: 159, cave 2 Foladi, cave 43 Kakrak conclusion on the caves of Bamiyan 160, other Buddhist remains 162
III.2The southern route of Chinese Turkistan164
Introduction 164, remains of the southern route of Chinese Turkistan: Loulan 165, Buddhist remains at Miran 166, caitya (remain3) 167, caitya (remain5) 168, Niya remains 169, Endere, Khotan 170, Yotkan, finds at Khotan 172, a copper head of the Buddha, a Buddha image that emits rays, remains near Khotan 173, Buddhist remains at Tarishlak, Rawak 174, Ak-terk, Domoko district: Farhad - beg- Yailaki 175, Khadalik, painted images of the triad of the Buddha in the first remainat Khadalik 176, balawaste, Dandan Uiliq 177
III.3The northern route of Chinese Turkistan180
The western and the middle regions: Mauri Tim, Toquz Sarai near Tumshuk 180, conclusion on Toquz sarai 182
III.4Qyzil Ming-oi183
Introduction 183, the treasure cave 184, the peacock cave, the cave of many statues 185, the female monkey cave, the hippocampus cave, the sailor's cave in the second group of caves 186, the painter's cave in the second group of caves, Maya cave in the third group of caves 187, the cave with a hearth and its group 188 the cave with a painting on the floor the cave with 16 warriors with swords 189, the cave that is the fifth to the east of the cave with 16 warriors with swords, the cave with musicians in concert 190, the cave with the one who wears a helmet the cave of Kasyapa, the cave with a red dome 191, the cave with a cauldron in hell, the cave with a staircase the cave with a pigeon holding a circle 192, the cave of Nagaraja, Ajatasatru's cave in the second group the cave with Maya in the second group of caves 193, observatioins on the paintings of the Chineses at Qyzil 194.
III.5The northern route of Chinese Turkistan197
The middle and the eastern parts: the outline of the caves at Qumtura the kinnari cave 197, cave 19, nirvana cave 198, Nagaraja cave 199 the apsaras cave, Duldur Aqur 200, Subashi, the opinions of Hallade and courtois 201, Siksin, temples in the open air and sundry finds 203, caves 3A, 5:205, cave 9, Yar-khoto 206, Karakhoja remains of other temples 207, finds in the cemetery of Astana 211, Toyok 212, Chikkan Kol 213, Sengim Auz 214, caves of Bezeklik 215
Part IV. China 221
Introduction : Statues of the Buddha in early period 223
IV.1Cave temples at Yun kang225
Architecture at Yun-kang 225, sculpture of yun-kang 226, cave 19: 227, conclusion on the Yun-kang caves 231, the style of the Buddha statue in the later period of Yun-kang 232
IV.2Cave temples in the early period234
Mo kao caves at Tun huang 234, caves of Ping lings -ssu 237, Lung men caves: Ku yang tung, ping yang tung 238, Lien hua tung 240, Wei tzu tung 241, cave temples at Kung hsien 242, cave temples of Mai chi shan 246
IV.3Sacred statues in the early period252
Single statues of the Pei Wei period 252, sculpture statues in the period of Tung Wei and His Wei 253
IV.4The Pei Ch'I (550-577)and Pei Chou(577-681) Periods256
The second cave of Pei -shiang-t'ang shan 256, cave 3 of Pei-shiang -t'ang -shan 257, cave 5 in Nan -shiang-t'ang -shan 260 cave 4 of Pei hsiang-t'ang shan 258, cave 1 of Nan-hsaing-t'ang shan, cave 5 in Nan -Shiang-t'ang shan 259, cave 7 in the Nan -hsiang -t'ang shan , caves at Tien -lung -shan 260 caves 1, 2: 261, caves 3, 10: 262 cave 16, cave 20 Lung-men 263 ,sacred statues of the Pei ch'I period 264, statues of the pei chou period (557-580), caves in tun-huang of the Pei Chou period 265
IV.5The Sui period267
General history 267, To-shan sheng -k'u, Ling -chuan -ssu, Paoshan 269, cave 8 Tien-lung -shan 270 , cave 61 Maichishan, a cave in Ping -ling -ssu ,cave of the Sui period at Tun huang 271, single statues from the Sui period 274
IV.6The Tang period276
The chao-ling of emperor Ta-stung the ch'ien-ling of Kao-tsung 276, the Ta-yen -t'a, tz'u-en -ssu , Hsian, Hsiao-yen -t'a, Ta-chien -tu-ssu Yun -chu-ssu , Fang-shan 277, caves in the Tang period at Lung -men 278, caves in Tien-lung -shan 281, caves in Shan-tung 283, single stone statues of the Tang period 285, statues of Pao-ch'ing-ssu, Hsian 286, caves at Tun-huang of the Tang period 288, bronze and wooden statues and decorative patterns in the Tang period 293
Part V. Korea and Japan 297
(A)Korea
V.1Acient period299
A short history , group of ancient tumuli in Kogulia 299, Buddhist figurines of Kogulia 300, Pakche: group of ancient tumuli 301, ancient Shilla period 304
V.2The period of the unification by Shilla308
Bulkugsa, Kyonju 310, Sokkkulam Toamsan 311, Hwaamsa and Papjusa 314, Buddhist bells 315, the period of Koria 316
(B)Japan
V.3The Asuka (552-644) and the Hakuho periods (645-723) The Asuka period 318, the Hakuho Period/the former Nara period (645-723) 320, sculpture in the Hakuho period 322
V.4The Nara period(736-783)325
Sculture of the Tempyo period 326
V.5The former Heian period (784-901) Painting 336332
fujiwara period (901-1185) 338

Introduction to Buddhist Art

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1990
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Preface
This book is a panoramic survey of the history of Buddhist art from its origins in India to its final efflorescence in Japan. Prof. Yamamoto gives the main outlines of its evolution in India, Srilanka, Indonesia, Kambuja, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan, China, Koria and Japan. Beginning with the Asokan pillars with their infact capitals, Sanci, Bhaja, Andhra, Bharhat, Mathura, Ajanta, Bedsa, Nasik, Pithalkora, it covers all the major Buddhist monuments of India. The techniques of the early Gandhara School have been described at length for all parts of the body (head, eyebrow, nose eyes mouth ear face throat etc.) and halo, kasaya, mudra, posture, colouring, etc. Prof. Yamamoto presents in a succinct manner his own observations of a life- time study of the Gandhara School in the early period when it was dominantly stucco images. Mathura school in the Kushan period when it was dominantly stucco images. Mathura school in the Kushan period and its relationship to Gandhara has been detailed. He has adduenced reasons for the ivories of Begram to have been carved at Mathura (p.55). Chapter on the Gupta period is of special significance as the Gupta idiom had a wide- ranging influence on the while of Buddhist art. The Buddha statues in Mathura and Sarnath have been compared. The diffusion of the Buddha statues of Sarnath to South East Asia takes us to further Asia.

The third part dealing with Central Asia is indeed rich as some of the materials have been presented in English for the first time. The extensive description of the Bamiyan caves includes the studies of the two expeditions of the Nagoya and Kyoto universities. The numbering of all the caves at Bamiyan have been referred to. The Buddhist remains on the southern and northern routes of Chinese Turkistan comprise stupas, caves and monasteries. The details of the Qyzil caves from Grunwedel are welcome as they have been inaccessible ever since he wrote his report in German. Prof. Yamamoto has done a service to students of Buddhist art by presenting the salient features of the researches of Chinese scholars on caves in China published in the Heibonsha series in Japanese.

The fourth part is a Buddhist art in China. Beginning with the Yunkang caves he describes the major developments of Buddhist art in China. The Tunhuang caves incorporate new researches by Chinese scholars published in Heibonsha's Tonko-bakokutsu. These have been presented in English for the first time. Prof. Yamamoto breaks new ground in pointing out the emergence and development of the Gupta-Tang style. His presentation of rare researches in French, German and Japanese in an overall view of Buddhist art is supplemented by his life-long studies of the subject. He also covers new cave -complexes which have been discovered in China since the 1950s and these add to the usefulness of this survey of Buddhist art. An excursus on one of these newly discovered grottos namely ping-ling-ssu (now written Binglingsi) from the Heibonsha volume will highlight the rich fare of artistic heritage that awaits wider circulation in English so that inter-disciplinary and inter- regional comparative studies can culation in English so that Inter- disciplinary and inter-regional comparative studies can be taken up.

THE BINGLINGSI CAVES were discovered in 1953 and the news reached Japan the same year. It was a great excitement for all experts of Buddhist art. In 1986 the Japanese published a preliminary report. The Chinese Government sent a survey team from July to August 1953. The Chinese monk Eko (497-554), in his Biographies of Eminent Monks, says that Shaku Genko practiced meditation in these caves with his disciples.Suikyochu written by Dogen (469-527) also refers to the Binglingsi caves. The work Hoenjurin mentions that caves were excavated in the mountain during his time, which means 668 A.D. and a number of monks were practising there. The existence of these caves was known to the world only through literary references until 1953. Restoration of the caves has been going on ever since their discovery. Staircases have been constructed for access to the caves. In 1953 a second survey of cave 169 was done. It has the oldest Buddhist sculptures of the Western Chin dynasty. It is in the highest part of the mountain and its survey was really a hazardous undertaking.

The Binglingsi is situated alongside the Yellow River along the Northern Valley in Mount Shoshakuseki. They are famous as stone cave temples. These caves can be divided into upper and lower groups, with a number of natural caves in between. The total number of caves is 196. Majority is concentrated in the lower level, which comprise 184 caves, among them 40 are caves and 144 are niches. The lower group has 694 big and small stone sculptures and 82 stucco images. The horizontal length of the wall paintings reaches 912 square meters. The highest standing sculpture is 27 meters high, and the smallest is 0.20 meters. The lower group is situated along the straight wall of the valley of the western Daijiko, which is surrounded by high and steep Rocky Mountains. In front of the caves runs the Yellow River. It presents a spectacular panorama.

Achievements of Binglingsi during the Western Chin (p.213). The sculptures in Cave 169 tell us the general situation of Western Chin art. If we compare them with sculptures in Gandhara, Central Asia and China, then we can know the traditions of Buddhist art in China at that early age, and the actual development of varying characteristics at different places. The sitting Buddhist statues of Cave 169 wear robes over both shoulders are in padmasana and in dhyana mudra except one stucco statue, which is inscribed in the first year of the Kengu era, wears a robe on the left shoulder while the right shoulder is bare. The artists at Qyzil were more inclined to express spiritual joy and blissful fulfillment. Artists at Ryoshu and Western Chin seek both serenity and bliss in a form to manifest accomplishment of wisdom in meditation and joyfulness to be demonstrated in vast compassion. Expressions of the Buddhas in meditation and the naturalness of their transparent robs demonstrate excellence of artistic quality. If we compare them with bronze Buddhas that appeared during the same period the distinct accomplishment of the stone sculptors can be recognized. Bronze statues are still in the condition of imitation but stucco and stone sculptures have made quite a progress. This fact should be noticed.

The statue made in the first year of Kengu is Amitabha Buddha (pl. 21) with a high usnisa half closed eyes and the hands in dhyana mudra. It depicts the attainment of Buddhahood by bhiksu Dharmagarbha. The expression of the face is dignified and distinct from other Buddha- statues that means: the artists at that time had understood differing qualities of the various materials and at the same time the artists sought expression in accord with their raw material. Artists have to describe the Supreme Buddhas actualizing their state for the visualization by the devotee. We can find similarities between this statue made in the first year of kengu and the earlier ones, which also have the left shoulder bare, found in Caves 77, 78 of Mount Bakushaku. These are bigger in scale are forceful in spiritual grandeur. The statues at Yun-kang caves developed these aspects.

From the Jacket

This book is a panoramic survey of the history of Buddhist art from its origins in India to its final efflorescence in Japan. Prof. Chikyo Yamamoto gives the main outline of its evolution in India, SriLanka, Indonesia, Kambuja, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan, China, Korea and Japan. Beginning with the Asokan pillars with their intact capitals and Sanci, it covers all the major Buddhist monuments of India. The techniques of the early Gandhara School have been described at length for all parts of the body. The author presents in a succinct manner his own observations of a life time study of the Gandhara school in the early period when it was mostly stone sculpture and in the later period when it was mostly stone sculpture and in the latter period when it was dominantly stucco images. Character on the Gupta period is of special significance as the Gupta idiom had a wide ranging influenced on the Buddhist art of the whole of Asia. The diffusion of the Buddha statues of Sarnath to South East Asia takes us to the second part dealing with further Asia.

The fourth part is a history of Buddhist art in China. Beginning with the Yun-kang caves he describes its major developments. The Tun-huang caves incorporate new researches by Chinese scholars published in Heibonsha'sTonko bakkokutsu. These have been presented in English for the first time. Prof. Yamamoto breaks new ground in pointing out of the emergence and development of the Gupta- Tang style. He also covers new cave complexes which have been discovered in China since the 1950s and these add to the usefulness of this survey of Buddhist art.

The final Fifth part surveys the Buddhist art of Korea and Japan in its overall development in East Asia. His presentation of rare researches in French German and Japanese is supplemented by his life long studies of the subject.

The Author
Prof. Chikyo Yamamoto is the doyen of Japanese scholars of Buddhist art. Born in 1910 he studied at the Koyasan University under one of the foremost art- historians of Japan Prof. Germmyo Ono, a co-editor of the last twelve volumes 89-100 of the Taisho editions of the Chinese Tripitaka on Buddhist iconography. From 1936 to 1939 he studied Sanskrit and Gandharodyana Art with the leading Ideologist Prof. Raghu Vira at Lahore and worked on the iconometry of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas for his Ph.D. For this he traveled to all the archaeological sites in India and look over ten thousand photographs. He translated The L'Inde Classique into Japanese. Among his recent English works are Introduction to the Mandala(Kyoto, 1980) History of Mantrayana in Japan (New Delhi, 1987),Mahavairocana-Sutra(New Delhi, 1990) translated from Chinese into English and the present book. He has completed a "History of Indian Art" in Japanese with 2,000 photographs, and is currently engaged in translating the works of Kobo Daishi at the age of eighty springs. Professor emeritus at the Koyasan, University and formerly Director of the Reihokan Museum Koyasan.

Contents
Introduction1
India 1, Srilanka 3, Java, Sumatra, Kamboja, Champa, Thailand, Burma 4, Afghanistan, Chinese Turkistan 5, China 6, Korea, Japan 8.
Part I. India
I.1Ancient India13
The stupa at Piprahwa, stone pillare of Asoka, Barabar Caves 13, the yaksa statue found at Parkham, Yaksi from Didarganj, the Sunga period (176-70 B.C.), stupa 2 at Sanci 14, Bhaja Caves 15, caitya at Kondane, ruined monasteries in Andhra, Bhattiprolu 16, Jaggayyapeta, Guntupalle, Bharat 17, terracottas in the Sunga Age Bugghagaya 19, Mathura, group of caves in western India: Ajanta 21, Bedsa, Nasik 22, Pithalkora 23, Cave 48 caitya in the group 3 at Karadh, Sailarwadi, Sanci 24, Satavahana dynasty 26, Udayagiri, Orissa 27, Junnar, Tulja Lena, Ambarika caitya 28, Karli 29
I.2The Earlier Gandhara School31
Buddhism in north -west India, Dharmarajika stupa 31, Kalawan, Hathial, Gandhara, Takht-I-Bahai Sahri-bohlol, Jamalgarhi, Shahbazgarhi 32, Shah -ji-ki dheri, Udyana 33, Buner, Manikyala, Afghanistan, Nagarahara, Kapisa, development of the stupa 34, the bas-reliefs of the Gandhara school, jatakas and the life of the Buddha 36, general description of bas-reliefs 42, image of the Buddha 43, statues of Bodhisattvas, statues of the gods, conclusions of the Gandhara school 46
I.3Mathura school in the Kushan period48
Architecture, the statue of the Buddha 48, conclusion on the Buddha statues of Gandhara and Mathura 51, statues of Bodhisattvas, Jaina statues 52, statues of Surya, Hindu sculptures, statues of yakasas, statues of nagas, statues of goddesses 53, yaksis, statues of men 54, ivories from Begram 55, domestic scenes on the stone sculptures at Mathura, decorative designs 57
I.4Caves of western India59
History of the period, Ajanta cave 9, group of caves at Nasik 59, group of caves at Junnar 61, Kanheri 62
I.5The Andhra school64
Amaravati 64, Nagarjunakonda 65, sculptures of the Andhra school, Jataka stories, life of the Buddha 66, the statue of the Buddha 68
I.6The Gandhara school70
History of the epoch 70, remains of the later Gandhra school, Mohra- Moradu Jaulian 71, Jalalabad, ancient Kabul, the technique of stucco images 72
I.7The Gupta period74
History of the period, art in the Gupta period, monuments in the early Gupta period , group of caves at Udayagiri 74, Sanci 76, Garhwa, the Mathura school in the Gupta period 77, the Sarnath school in the Gupta period a short history 80, the relation of the Buddha statues in Mathura and Sarnath 82, the diffusion of the Buddha statues made and Sarnath to South -east Asia 83, the statue of the Bidhisattva 84, group of caves at Ajanta 85
I.8The beginning of the Mediaeval period90
Nalanda, Aurangabad 90, Ellora, art in the Pala period 91, general outline of the Buddha statues in Pala style 92
Part II. South -East Asia95
II.1Srilanka97
Buddhist stupas in Srilanka : Anuradhapura, Ruwanweli dagaba 98, Miriswetiya dagaba, Kanthaka -cetiya (Mihintable), the big stupa of Abhayagiri the big stupa of Jetavana 99, the huge rock at Sigiriya, influence of the Andhra school of art, Isurumuniya, Polonnaruwa 100, Gal -vihara, Lankatilaka, Rankot-dagaba, Sat-mahal-prasada, Wata-dague, a royal palace 101, traces of esoteric Buddhism 102
II.2Java103
Propagation of Indian culture in Java 103, the Buddhist monuments in java 105, Mendut a Garbha-mandala 106, Pawon 108, Borobudor, the Vajradhatu- mandala 109, Sewu, Kalasan 112, Plaosan 113, art in Java 114
II.3Sumatra115
Srivijaya, Palembang 115, Malaya Peninsula 118, Borneo, Celebes 119
II.4Kamboja121
Funan 121, art of Funan, kingdom of Chenla 122, stone temples, statues in the Chenla period 123, from Chenla to the Khmer empire, the old capital of Angkor Thom 124, architecture, Classical Khmer architecture 126, Prah Vihear, Prah Khan 128, Angkor Thom 129, Angkor Vat 130, Buddha statues in the Angkor period 131
II.5Champa134
Simhapura, Indrapura 134, PoNagar, architecture of Champa 135, remains of sculptures in Champa 137
II.6Thailand138
A Short history 138, dedicatory, tablets of Buddhism 139, the Dvaravati art and the Buddha statue in Sarnath style 140, Srivijaya art, Khmer art, Thai art 141, architecture and painting 142
II.7Burma144
A brief history 144, Pagan, Buddhist stupa in Burma 145, sculptures and wall- paintings 147
Part III. Central Asia149
III.1Afghanistan151
Bamiyan caves, cave 33,35: 151, caves 51 (G), 70,71,72 (F), 72: 152, caves 119,129,140,155:153, cave 165: 155, caves 16,222, 223: 156, caves 330, 404: 157, caves 471, 530: 158, caves 590, 620: 159, cave 2 Foladi, cave 43 Kakrak conclusion on the caves of Bamiyan 160, other Buddhist remains 162
III.2The southern route of Chinese Turkistan164
Introduction 164, remains of the southern route of Chinese Turkistan: Loulan 165, Buddhist remains at Miran 166, caitya (remain3) 167, caitya (remain5) 168, Niya remains 169, Endere, Khotan 170, Yotkan, finds at Khotan 172, a copper head of the Buddha, a Buddha image that emits rays, remains near Khotan 173, Buddhist remains at Tarishlak, Rawak 174, Ak-terk, Domoko district: Farhad - beg- Yailaki 175, Khadalik, painted images of the triad of the Buddha in the first remainat Khadalik 176, balawaste, Dandan Uiliq 177
III.3The northern route of Chinese Turkistan180
The western and the middle regions: Mauri Tim, Toquz Sarai near Tumshuk 180, conclusion on Toquz sarai 182
III.4Qyzil Ming-oi183
Introduction 183, the treasure cave 184, the peacock cave, the cave of many statues 185, the female monkey cave, the hippocampus cave, the sailor's cave in the second group of caves 186, the painter's cave in the second group of caves, Maya cave in the third group of caves 187, the cave with a hearth and its group 188 the cave with a painting on the floor the cave with 16 warriors with swords 189, the cave that is the fifth to the east of the cave with 16 warriors with swords, the cave with musicians in concert 190, the cave with the one who wears a helmet the cave of Kasyapa, the cave with a red dome 191, the cave with a cauldron in hell, the cave with a staircase the cave with a pigeon holding a circle 192, the cave of Nagaraja, Ajatasatru's cave in the second group the cave with Maya in the second group of caves 193, observatioins on the paintings of the Chineses at Qyzil 194.
III.5The northern route of Chinese Turkistan197
The middle and the eastern parts: the outline of the caves at Qumtura the kinnari cave 197, cave 19, nirvana cave 198, Nagaraja cave 199 the apsaras cave, Duldur Aqur 200, Subashi, the opinions of Hallade and courtois 201, Siksin, temples in the open air and sundry finds 203, caves 3A, 5:205, cave 9, Yar-khoto 206, Karakhoja remains of other temples 207, finds in the cemetery of Astana 211, Toyok 212, Chikkan Kol 213, Sengim Auz 214, caves of Bezeklik 215
Part IV. China 221
Introduction : Statues of the Buddha in early period 223
IV.1Cave temples at Yun kang225
Architecture at Yun-kang 225, sculpture of yun-kang 226, cave 19: 227, conclusion on the Yun-kang caves 231, the style of the Buddha statue in the later period of Yun-kang 232
IV.2Cave temples in the early period234
Mo kao caves at Tun huang 234, caves of Ping lings -ssu 237, Lung men caves: Ku yang tung, ping yang tung 238, Lien hua tung 240, Wei tzu tung 241, cave temples at Kung hsien 242, cave temples of Mai chi shan 246
IV.3Sacred statues in the early period252
Single statues of the Pei Wei period 252, sculpture statues in the period of Tung Wei and His Wei 253
IV.4The Pei Ch'I (550-577)and Pei Chou(577-681) Periods256
The second cave of Pei -shiang-t'ang shan 256, cave 3 of Pei-shiang -t'ang -shan 257, cave 5 in Nan -shiang-t'ang -shan 260 cave 4 of Pei hsiang-t'ang shan 258, cave 1 of Nan-hsaing-t'ang shan, cave 5 in Nan -Shiang-t'ang shan 259, cave 7 in the Nan -hsiang -t'ang shan , caves at Tien -lung -shan 260 caves 1, 2: 261, caves 3, 10: 262 cave 16, cave 20 Lung-men 263 ,sacred statues of the Pei ch'I period 264, statues of the pei chou period (557-580), caves in tun-huang of the Pei Chou period 265
IV.5The Sui period267
General history 267, To-shan sheng -k'u, Ling -chuan -ssu, Paoshan 269, cave 8 Tien-lung -shan 270 , cave 61 Maichishan, a cave in Ping -ling -ssu ,cave of the Sui period at Tun huang 271, single statues from the Sui period 274
IV.6The Tang period276
The chao-ling of emperor Ta-stung the ch'ien-ling of Kao-tsung 276, the Ta-yen -t'a, tz'u-en -ssu , Hsian, Hsiao-yen -t'a, Ta-chien -tu-ssu Yun -chu-ssu , Fang-shan 277, caves in the Tang period at Lung -men 278, caves in Tien-lung -shan 281, caves in Shan-tung 283, single stone statues of the Tang period 285, statues of Pao-ch'ing-ssu, Hsian 286, caves at Tun-huang of the Tang period 288, bronze and wooden statues and decorative patterns in the Tang period 293
Part V. Korea and Japan 297
(A)Korea
V.1Acient period299
A short history , group of ancient tumuli in Kogulia 299, Buddhist figurines of Kogulia 300, Pakche: group of ancient tumuli 301, ancient Shilla period 304
V.2The period of the unification by Shilla308
Bulkugsa, Kyonju 310, Sokkkulam Toamsan 311, Hwaamsa and Papjusa 314, Buddhist bells 315, the period of Koria 316
(B)Japan
V.3The Asuka (552-644) and the Hakuho periods (645-723) The Asuka period 318, the Hakuho Period/the former Nara period (645-723) 320, sculpture in the Hakuho period 322
V.4The Nara period(736-783)325
Sculture of the Tempyo period 326
V.5The former Heian period (784-901) Painting 336332
fujiwara period (901-1185) 338
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