Warning: include(domaintitles/domaintitle_wiki.exoticindiaart.php3): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/exotic/newexotic/header.php3 on line 921

Warning: include(): Failed opening 'domaintitles/domaintitle_wiki.exoticindiaart.php3' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/exotic/newexotic/header.php3 on line 921

Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Best Deals
25% + 10% off on all Sculptures
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Philosophy > Nyaya > The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning
Pages from the book
The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning
Look Inside the Book
Description
Foreword It gives me great pleasure in writing this foreword. I extend my compliments to Dr. Satyamurti, the author of this work for choosing a very important topic as the theme, namely, the Concept of tarka in Nydyagastra. I appreciate it because, (1) there has been no detailed discussion so far on this topic at one place and (2) because, all the source materials on tarka which have been studied and analyzed by Dr. Satyamurti have been put in the Appendix of this book. This has added additional value to this work since the reader will have direct access to the original statements of the classical Indian philosophers and logicians. The depth in Indian Epistemology is acquired because of very close dialogues with the participants in a discourse. The thinkers have gone very deep in analyzing the indirect process of acquiring knowledge. The journey of going from known to unknown is also not that smooth. Often, a lot of gap is required to be filled in. The postulation of the concept of tarka is the outcome of such a journey. Take, for instance, the case of an inference. This indirect process of knowing is dependent on the definite knowledge of the invariable concomitance between the known and the unknown i.e. 'to be known. This implies that one must be aware of the relationship of all x with all y, where y is to be known from the x. But how is it possible to know all instances of x and their relationship with all instances of y? And unless one knows this for certain, how can one infer the association of a particular y with the place where the x is known to exist? This leaves behind ample scope for doubt. The only way to terminate the scope of such doubt is to point out to the causal relationship between x and y. This task is performed by the concept of tarka in such cases. In his way, various roles are performed by the concept of tarka in the indirect process of knowing. Dr. Satyamurti has done a commendable job by presenting the concept of tarka with all its variety, right from Gautama's Nyayasatra through Udyotakara's Varttika, Jayantabhatta's Nyayamatijari and Udayana's Tatparyatikapariguddhi up to Sriharsa's Kharjclana-kharidakhadya. I am sure Dr. Satyamurti will continue the study of tarka and will extend it to incorporate the data from the Navya Nyaya texts too and will offer a richer and broader analysis of this concept in future. I wish him all success in that. I have no doubt in my mind regarding the utility of this book. I am sure; the present work will be received by scholars and students with joy.

Preface

As long as we project Sanskrit merely as the repository of ancient wisdom & culture, we cannot convince the modern society, which is wedded to materialistic and utilitarian values. We will have to meet contemporary challenges and cater to the utilitarian aspirations of today as well. We would have to make the society understand that Sanskrit is not just confined to preaching sermons. Like other academic disciplines, Sanskrit, too, is perfectly in tune with the modern times. Keeping this view in mind, I, along with my teachers & colleagues, had an earnest desire to introduce those things in our curriculum, which are relevant in today's world. Therefore, we felt that Indian Logic could be one of the areas, which could appeal to many. In this way, the idea to bring great Indian tradition in logic to the fore came into being.

Confutation is an important tool in the art of debate. Its history is as old as that of Indian culture. Travelling from Srutis & Smrtis, the conception of confutation entered the philosophical realm. The seed found in the Vedic literature became a giant tree in the philosophical texts. In the philosophical arena, the Mimaiiisakas pioneered in the use of confutation (tarka) as a tool in the context of the Vedic exegesis. Initially, the Vedantins, too, followed them to establish their own doctrines on the basis of the Upaniads. But, for the first time, the Naiyayikas gave it a technical dimension and used as an accessory to the means of valid cognition. The Buddhists, also, used it in a technical sense. But, their understanding of confutation (tarka) is different from that of the Nyaya school. To them, tarka and inference are synonimous. Initially, scholars of the ancient Nyaya followed the aphorism of Gautama (Nyayasutra; 1.1.40) and expanded the cocept of confutation mutatis mutandis. But, it was Udayana (984 AD), who gave a new dimension to the definition of tarka. Among the Naiyayikas, the contribution of Udayana is unique. He developed the concept of confutation (tarka) in a novel way. He is the one, who defined tarka as a conjecture of the illlogical (anistaprasariga) and the neo-logicians, specially Varadaraja (1150 AD), merely emulated him. In the later phase, even the Advaita scholar Sriharsa (1110 AD) and the Vaignavite scholars VeclantadeSika (1330 AD) and Jayatirtha (1370 AD), too, left their indelible marks in the realm of logic as they refuted many ideas of the Naiyayikas in this regard. Understanding the vastness of the subject, I confined myself only to the Nyaya philosophy. This work is a modest endeavor to elucidate the concept of tarka in a simple language. Along with the Sastric examples, I have tried to give illustrations from our day to day life. If the Sastra can not have connection with real world situation, it would become meaningless. Hence, I have also tried to bring the doctrines out of the philosophical arena. I have taken the dates of various scholars from Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies by Karl H. Potter as it is considered to be the most authentic source.

After the English version, I have rewritten the entire text in Hindi to give access to those; who are more comfortable in Hindi. In the end, I have given some of the original texts to help the teachers & researcher visiting in the primary for sources further enquiry into the subject. When Delhi University was undergoing a complete metamorphosis through adopting semester system, the department of Sanskrit, D. U. took it as an opportunity to change the stereo-type earlier course. It redesigned the curriculum of M. A. (Sanskrit), B. A. (Hons.) in Sanskrit & four year semester course of B. A. (Hons.) in a manner, through which Sanskrit could be projected not merely as a language but as an independent discipline as well. For projecting Sanskrit much beyond a language, the department introduced papers like Mathematics & Astronomy, Scientific Heritage of India, Indian Logic and Debate, Self-Management in The Gita, Introduction to Indian Philosophy, and so on. The current topic is the brain-child of Prof. Madan Mohan Agrawal, the then Head of the department. At his initiative, the portion on reasoning was introduced in the syllabi of B.A. (Hons.) Sanskrit as a paper in third year. It has been titled as 'Reasoning: Ontology, Epistemology and Logic'.

It was a big challenge to prepare material on this topic because the area of confutation is given less attention in the academic world. There are a few useful works on the topic. But, with their very complex exposition, they were not found suitable for students. With the inspiration and guidance of Prof. Madan Mohan Agrawal, I embarked upon the onerous task of writing this book. I, indeed, owe to him a lot because he has always been my greatest academic support. I express my utmost reverence to my parents, who are my perennial source of inspiration.

**Contents and Sample Pages**












The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning

Item Code:
NAV409
Cover:
HARDCOVER
Edition:
2015
ISBN:
9788170846506
Language:
English Text with Sanskrit Transliterations
Size:
9.00 X 6.00 inch
Pages:
142
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 0.32 Kg
Price:
$29.00
Discounted:
$21.75   Shipping Free
You Save:
$7.25 (25%)
Look Inside the Book
Be the first to rate this product
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning
From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 659 times since 2nd Jan, 2020
Foreword It gives me great pleasure in writing this foreword. I extend my compliments to Dr. Satyamurti, the author of this work for choosing a very important topic as the theme, namely, the Concept of tarka in Nydyagastra. I appreciate it because, (1) there has been no detailed discussion so far on this topic at one place and (2) because, all the source materials on tarka which have been studied and analyzed by Dr. Satyamurti have been put in the Appendix of this book. This has added additional value to this work since the reader will have direct access to the original statements of the classical Indian philosophers and logicians. The depth in Indian Epistemology is acquired because of very close dialogues with the participants in a discourse. The thinkers have gone very deep in analyzing the indirect process of acquiring knowledge. The journey of going from known to unknown is also not that smooth. Often, a lot of gap is required to be filled in. The postulation of the concept of tarka is the outcome of such a journey. Take, for instance, the case of an inference. This indirect process of knowing is dependent on the definite knowledge of the invariable concomitance between the known and the unknown i.e. 'to be known. This implies that one must be aware of the relationship of all x with all y, where y is to be known from the x. But how is it possible to know all instances of x and their relationship with all instances of y? And unless one knows this for certain, how can one infer the association of a particular y with the place where the x is known to exist? This leaves behind ample scope for doubt. The only way to terminate the scope of such doubt is to point out to the causal relationship between x and y. This task is performed by the concept of tarka in such cases. In his way, various roles are performed by the concept of tarka in the indirect process of knowing. Dr. Satyamurti has done a commendable job by presenting the concept of tarka with all its variety, right from Gautama's Nyayasatra through Udyotakara's Varttika, Jayantabhatta's Nyayamatijari and Udayana's Tatparyatikapariguddhi up to Sriharsa's Kharjclana-kharidakhadya. I am sure Dr. Satyamurti will continue the study of tarka and will extend it to incorporate the data from the Navya Nyaya texts too and will offer a richer and broader analysis of this concept in future. I wish him all success in that. I have no doubt in my mind regarding the utility of this book. I am sure; the present work will be received by scholars and students with joy.

Preface

As long as we project Sanskrit merely as the repository of ancient wisdom & culture, we cannot convince the modern society, which is wedded to materialistic and utilitarian values. We will have to meet contemporary challenges and cater to the utilitarian aspirations of today as well. We would have to make the society understand that Sanskrit is not just confined to preaching sermons. Like other academic disciplines, Sanskrit, too, is perfectly in tune with the modern times. Keeping this view in mind, I, along with my teachers & colleagues, had an earnest desire to introduce those things in our curriculum, which are relevant in today's world. Therefore, we felt that Indian Logic could be one of the areas, which could appeal to many. In this way, the idea to bring great Indian tradition in logic to the fore came into being.

Confutation is an important tool in the art of debate. Its history is as old as that of Indian culture. Travelling from Srutis & Smrtis, the conception of confutation entered the philosophical realm. The seed found in the Vedic literature became a giant tree in the philosophical texts. In the philosophical arena, the Mimaiiisakas pioneered in the use of confutation (tarka) as a tool in the context of the Vedic exegesis. Initially, the Vedantins, too, followed them to establish their own doctrines on the basis of the Upaniads. But, for the first time, the Naiyayikas gave it a technical dimension and used as an accessory to the means of valid cognition. The Buddhists, also, used it in a technical sense. But, their understanding of confutation (tarka) is different from that of the Nyaya school. To them, tarka and inference are synonimous. Initially, scholars of the ancient Nyaya followed the aphorism of Gautama (Nyayasutra; 1.1.40) and expanded the cocept of confutation mutatis mutandis. But, it was Udayana (984 AD), who gave a new dimension to the definition of tarka. Among the Naiyayikas, the contribution of Udayana is unique. He developed the concept of confutation (tarka) in a novel way. He is the one, who defined tarka as a conjecture of the illlogical (anistaprasariga) and the neo-logicians, specially Varadaraja (1150 AD), merely emulated him. In the later phase, even the Advaita scholar Sriharsa (1110 AD) and the Vaignavite scholars VeclantadeSika (1330 AD) and Jayatirtha (1370 AD), too, left their indelible marks in the realm of logic as they refuted many ideas of the Naiyayikas in this regard. Understanding the vastness of the subject, I confined myself only to the Nyaya philosophy. This work is a modest endeavor to elucidate the concept of tarka in a simple language. Along with the Sastric examples, I have tried to give illustrations from our day to day life. If the Sastra can not have connection with real world situation, it would become meaningless. Hence, I have also tried to bring the doctrines out of the philosophical arena. I have taken the dates of various scholars from Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies by Karl H. Potter as it is considered to be the most authentic source.

After the English version, I have rewritten the entire text in Hindi to give access to those; who are more comfortable in Hindi. In the end, I have given some of the original texts to help the teachers & researcher visiting in the primary for sources further enquiry into the subject. When Delhi University was undergoing a complete metamorphosis through adopting semester system, the department of Sanskrit, D. U. took it as an opportunity to change the stereo-type earlier course. It redesigned the curriculum of M. A. (Sanskrit), B. A. (Hons.) in Sanskrit & four year semester course of B. A. (Hons.) in a manner, through which Sanskrit could be projected not merely as a language but as an independent discipline as well. For projecting Sanskrit much beyond a language, the department introduced papers like Mathematics & Astronomy, Scientific Heritage of India, Indian Logic and Debate, Self-Management in The Gita, Introduction to Indian Philosophy, and so on. The current topic is the brain-child of Prof. Madan Mohan Agrawal, the then Head of the department. At his initiative, the portion on reasoning was introduced in the syllabi of B.A. (Hons.) Sanskrit as a paper in third year. It has been titled as 'Reasoning: Ontology, Epistemology and Logic'.

It was a big challenge to prepare material on this topic because the area of confutation is given less attention in the academic world. There are a few useful works on the topic. But, with their very complex exposition, they were not found suitable for students. With the inspiration and guidance of Prof. Madan Mohan Agrawal, I embarked upon the onerous task of writing this book. I, indeed, owe to him a lot because he has always been my greatest academic support. I express my utmost reverence to my parents, who are my perennial source of inspiration.

**Contents and Sample Pages**












Post a Comment
 
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning (Philosophy | Books)

The Nyaya Conception of Reasoning
by satyamurti
PAPERBACK (Edition: 2015)
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Item Code: NAV407
$16.00$12.00
You save: $4.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nyaya Concept of Cause & Effect Relationship
Deal 20% Off
by Arun Ranjan Mishra
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Pratibha Prakashan
Item Code: NAO966
$36.00$21.60
You save: $14.40 (20 + 25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Navya Nyaya Logic (Concept of abhava)
by Vibha Gaur
HARDCOVER (Edition: 1990)
Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan
Item Code: NAR587
$29.00$21.75
You save: $7.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nyaya-Vaisesika (Conception Matter in Indian Philisophy)
by Umesha Mishra
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Item Code: NAI010
$60.50$45.38
You save: $15.12 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Causality and its Application: Samkhya, Buddha and Nyaya
by J.L. SHAW
Hardcover (Edition: 2005)
Punthi Pustak
Item Code: NAI202
$21.00$15.75
You save: $5.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Manikana (A Navya-Nyaya Manual)
Item Code: IDH336
$31.00$23.25
You save: $7.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nyaya-Vaisesika Philosophy and Text Science
Item Code: NAE328
$29.00$21.75
You save: $7.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nyaya Theory of Knowledge
by S.C. Chatterjee
Hardcover (Edition: 2018)
Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Item Code: NAF778
$36.00$27.00
You save: $9.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Development of Nyaya Philosophy and Its Social Context
Item Code: NAD326
$95.00$71.25
You save: $23.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Navya-Nyaya -  Some Logical Problems (An Old and Rare Book)
Item Code: NAR535
$29.00$21.75
You save: $7.25 (25%)
SOLD
Nyaya Sudha of Sri Jayatirtha (First Adhyayas Complete)
Item Code: NAN434
$31.00$23.25
You save: $7.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Testimonials
I am so happy to have found you!! What a wonderful source for books of Indian origin at reasonable cost! Thank you!
Urvi, USA
I very much appreciate your web site and the products you have available. I especially like the ancient cookbooks you have and am always looking for others here to share with my friends.
Sam, USA
Very good service thank you. Keep up the good work !
Charles, Switzerland
Namaste! Thank you for your kind assistance! I would like to inform that your package arrived today and all is very well. I appreciate all your support and definitively will continue ordering form your company again in the near future!
Lizette, Puerto Rico
I just wanted to thank you again, mere dost, for shipping the Nataraj. We now have it in our home, thanks to you and Exotic India. We are most grateful. Bahut dhanyavad!
Drea and Kalinidi, Ireland
I am extremely very happy to see an Indian website providing arts, crafts and books from all over India and dispatching to all over the world ! Great work, keep it going. Looking forward to more and more purchase from you. Thank you for your service.
Vrunda
We have always enjoyed your products.
Elizabeth, USA
Thank you for the prompt delivery of the bowl, which I am very satisfied with.
Frans, the Netherlands
I have received my books and they are in perfect condition. You provide excellent service to your customers, DHL too, and I thank you for that. I recommended you to my friend who is the director of the Aurobindo bookstore.
Mr. Forget from Montreal
Thank you so much. Your service is amazing. 
Kiran, USA
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2020 © Exotic India