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Books > Ayurveda > Ayurveda > QUALITY STANDARDS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS: 4 Volumes
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QUALITY STANDARDS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS: 4 Volumes
QUALITY STANDARDS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS: 4 Volumes
Description
Introduction:

Plant based medicine have been used by mankind since time immemorial. According to the report of World Health Organization, over 80 per cent of the world population relies on the traditional systems of medicine, largely plant based to meet their primary health care. The effectiveness of these systems, in turn mainly depends upon the proper use and sustained availability of genuine raw material. Global resurgence of the interest in herbal drugs has led to the need of their mass production which perhaps was not even contemplated by the traditional medicine practitioners who prepared and dispensed the medicine on a personal and individual basis. Largescale production of medicinal plant products necessitated the availability of standards to ensure their quality, efficacy and safety.

Furthermore limited availability of medicinal plants of consistent quality has been perhaps one of the toughest impediment for reliable biological, pharmacological chemical and clinical evolution besides their use in health care. Lack or inadequacy of quality standards has been a discouraging factor for many potential herbal drug manufactures and also a handicap in regulating the herbal drug market.

Against this backdrop, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme for laying down quality standards of about 200 medicinal plants widely used in India. Special emphasis has been laid on various chromatographic techniques including thin layer chromatographic, fingerprinting, HPTLC, HPLC and GLC wherever needed . the studies complemented by literature back up has resulted in the preparation of monograph on 32 individual medicinal plants which have been covered in the present first volume. The work on the remaining plants is in progress.

The contents of monograph on each plants have been systematically described as follows:

  • Botanical name with authority, synonym, part(s) used geographical source.
  • Other names of the drug in different languages.

  • Part(s) of the Plant used as drug.

  • Macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic character of the part(s) used along with colour photograph of the plant, part(s) used and illustrated diagrams of histological features.

  • Chemical constituents, structure of important chemical constituents.

  • Identity test based on different chemical groups and TLC / GLC fingerprint profiles along with marker compounds.

  • Assay/analytical method for the analysis of marker compounds along with detailed procedure and chromatograms.

  • Other quantitative standards include foreign matter, total ash acid-insoluble ash, ethanol-soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and loss on drying.

  • Adulterants if any, giving details of distinguishing features from the genuine drug.

  • Important pharmacological and clinical studies in brief as reported in the literature.

  • Therapeutic category as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as evidenced by clinical trials and reported in literature.

  • Safety aspects as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in publications on pharmacological aspects.

  • Dosage as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in other scientific publications.

  • Complete references of the work cited.

CONTENTS

VOLUME - I

Message v
Foreword vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
Abbreviations xii
Introduction xv
MONOGRAPH
1 Abutilon indicum Sweet 1
2 Alpinia galanga Willd 7
3 Arnebia euchroma Johnston 13
4 Artemisia anua Linn 21
5 Asparagus racemo Willdsus 27
6 Bergenia ciliata Sternb. Forma ligulataYeo 34
7 Butea monosperma Taub 40
8 Cassia occidentalis Linn 47
9 Cassia senna Lin var senna 57
10 Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. 65
11 Cinamomum verum J. S. Presl 74
12 Curcuma amada Roxb 82
13 Cyperus rotundus Linn 89
14 Elettaria cardamomum Maton 95
15 Gymnema sylvestre Schult 102
16 Holarrhena antidysenterica DC 109
17 Jatopha glandulifera Roxb 117
18 Lawsonia inernmis Linn 123
19 Moringa oliefera Lamk 130
20 Mucuna pruriens DC 136
21 Murraya koenigii Spreng 142
22 Myristica fragrans Houtt 150
23 Nigela sativa Linn 161
24 Piper longum Linn 168
25 Pueraria tuberosa DC. 174
26 Sida acuta Burm f. ssp. Acuta 181
27 Tephrosia purpurea Pers 187
28 Terminalia bellirica Roxb 198
29 Terminalia chebula Retz 205
30 Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hok. F. & Thoms 212
31 Tylophora indica Merrill 219
32 Wedelia chinensis Merrill 226
APPENDIX
I Evalution of crude drugs 235
II Phytochemical evalution of raw material 238
III Methods for the isolation of markers 242
IV Drying and storage of raw material 243
V Pesticides, residue and microbial contamination 244
VI Plants allocated various Institutes 246
INDICES
I Botanical names 247
II Chemical constituents 249
III Other names of the Plants 255
VOLUME - II
Foreword v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Abbreviations ix
Introduction xi
Quality Standards of Indian medical plants Covered in Volume I xiii
MONOGRAPHS
1 Albizia lebbeck Benth 1
2 Aristolochia indica Linn 9
3 Boswellia serrata Roxb ex Colebr 19
4 Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. Emend. Dandy & Exell 25
5 Calotropis gigantean R. Br 34
6 Cassia fistula Linn 47
7 Catjaranthus roseus G. Don 54
8 Cissus quadrangularis Linn 62
9 Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb ex Spreng 70
10 Coscinium fenestratum Colebr 79
11 Dactylorhiza hatagirea Soo 87
12 Digitalis lanata Ehrh 94
13 Euphorbia prostrata W. Ait 103
14 Euphorbia tirucalli Linn 112
15 Hemidesmus indicus R. Br 119
16 Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Linn 129
17 Hypericum perforatum Linn 136
18 Liucas cephalotes Spreng 146
19 Malaxisacuminata D. Don 155
20 Mimusops elengi Linn 161
21 Ocimum basilicum Linn 168
22 Ocimum gratissimum Linn 176
23 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn 184
24 Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn 193
25 Saraca asoca de Wilde 201
26 Sida rhombifolia Linn ssp. Rhomnbifolia 209
27 Silybum marianum Gaetn 217
28 Streblus asper Lour 227
29 Taxus wallichiana Zucc. 235
30 Terminalia Arjuna Wight and Arn 243
31 Thevetia perviana K. Schum 253
32 Trianthema portulacastrum Linn 261
APPENDICES
I Evaluation of crude drugs 273
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 276
III Methods for the isolation of markers 280
IV Drying and storage of raw material 282
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 283
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 285
INDICES
I Botanical names 286
II Chemical constituents 288
III Other names of the plants 296

VOLUME III
Foreword v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Abbreviations ix
Introduction xiii
Contents of Volume 1 (Plants Covered) xv
Content of Volume 2 (Plants Covered) xvi
Monographs
1 Adhatoda beddomei Clarke 1
2 Aerva lanata (Linn) Juss. 9
3 Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. 20
4 Allium cepa Linn. 29
5 Allium sativum Linn 38
6 Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. 48
7 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall. Ex Guill. & Perr. 61
8 Areca catechu Linn 69
9 Berberis aristata DC. Var. aristata 78
10 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. 88
11 Capparis deciduas Edgew. 98
12 Carissa carandas Linn. 107
13 Catunaregam spinosa (Thumb.)Tiruv, ssp. Spinosa 115
14 Cichorium intybus Linn. 126
15 Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl 135
16 Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) Nees & Eberm. 149
17 Cissampelos pareira Linn. Var. hirsute (Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Forman 158
18 Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon 167
19 Commiphora wightti (Arnott) Bhandari 177
20 Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting 189
21 Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Ex Kunth 195
22 Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verd. 203
23 Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. 212
24 Ficus virens Ait. 222
25 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn.) Rob. 229
26 Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight and Arn. 236
27 Merremia turpethum (Linn.) Shaw & Bhatt 246
28 Mesua ferrea Linn. Var. ferrea 254
29 Momordica charantia Linn. 262
30 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 271
31 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. 281
32 Psorales corylifolia Linn. 290
33 Punica granatum Linn. 299
34 Rubia cordifolia Linn. 307
35 Sapindus laurifolius Vahl 316
36 Sapindus mukoossi Gaetn. 328
37 Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. 340
38 Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) sprague 349
39 Vitex negundo Linn. 357
40 Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz 367
Appendices
I Evaluation of crude drugs 377
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 380
III Methods for the isolation of markers 384
IV Drying and storage of raw material 387
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 388
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 390
Indices
I Botanical names 392
II Chemical constituents 394
III Other names of the plants 404

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QUALITY STANDARDS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS: 4 Volumes

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Introduction:

Plant based medicine have been used by mankind since time immemorial. According to the report of World Health Organization, over 80 per cent of the world population relies on the traditional systems of medicine, largely plant based to meet their primary health care. The effectiveness of these systems, in turn mainly depends upon the proper use and sustained availability of genuine raw material. Global resurgence of the interest in herbal drugs has led to the need of their mass production which perhaps was not even contemplated by the traditional medicine practitioners who prepared and dispensed the medicine on a personal and individual basis. Largescale production of medicinal plant products necessitated the availability of standards to ensure their quality, efficacy and safety.

Furthermore limited availability of medicinal plants of consistent quality has been perhaps one of the toughest impediment for reliable biological, pharmacological chemical and clinical evolution besides their use in health care. Lack or inadequacy of quality standards has been a discouraging factor for many potential herbal drug manufactures and also a handicap in regulating the herbal drug market.

Against this backdrop, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a programme for laying down quality standards of about 200 medicinal plants widely used in India. Special emphasis has been laid on various chromatographic techniques including thin layer chromatographic, fingerprinting, HPTLC, HPLC and GLC wherever needed . the studies complemented by literature back up has resulted in the preparation of monograph on 32 individual medicinal plants which have been covered in the present first volume. The work on the remaining plants is in progress.

The contents of monograph on each plants have been systematically described as follows:

  • Botanical name with authority, synonym, part(s) used geographical source.
  • Other names of the drug in different languages.

  • Part(s) of the Plant used as drug.

  • Macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug with special emphasis on diagnostic character of the part(s) used along with colour photograph of the plant, part(s) used and illustrated diagrams of histological features.

  • Chemical constituents, structure of important chemical constituents.

  • Identity test based on different chemical groups and TLC / GLC fingerprint profiles along with marker compounds.

  • Assay/analytical method for the analysis of marker compounds along with detailed procedure and chromatograms.

  • Other quantitative standards include foreign matter, total ash acid-insoluble ash, ethanol-soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and loss on drying.

  • Adulterants if any, giving details of distinguishing features from the genuine drug.

  • Important pharmacological and clinical studies in brief as reported in the literature.

  • Therapeutic category as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as evidenced by clinical trials and reported in literature.

  • Safety aspects as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in publications on pharmacological aspects.

  • Dosage as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in other scientific publications.

  • Complete references of the work cited.

CONTENTS

VOLUME - I

Message v
Foreword vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
Abbreviations xii
Introduction xv
MONOGRAPH
1 Abutilon indicum Sweet 1
2 Alpinia galanga Willd 7
3 Arnebia euchroma Johnston 13
4 Artemisia anua Linn 21
5 Asparagus racemo Willdsus 27
6 Bergenia ciliata Sternb. Forma ligulataYeo 34
7 Butea monosperma Taub 40
8 Cassia occidentalis Linn 47
9 Cassia senna Lin var senna 57
10 Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. 65
11 Cinamomum verum J. S. Presl 74
12 Curcuma amada Roxb 82
13 Cyperus rotundus Linn 89
14 Elettaria cardamomum Maton 95
15 Gymnema sylvestre Schult 102
16 Holarrhena antidysenterica DC 109
17 Jatopha glandulifera Roxb 117
18 Lawsonia inernmis Linn 123
19 Moringa oliefera Lamk 130
20 Mucuna pruriens DC 136
21 Murraya koenigii Spreng 142
22 Myristica fragrans Houtt 150
23 Nigela sativa Linn 161
24 Piper longum Linn 168
25 Pueraria tuberosa DC. 174
26 Sida acuta Burm f. ssp. Acuta 181
27 Tephrosia purpurea Pers 187
28 Terminalia bellirica Roxb 198
29 Terminalia chebula Retz 205
30 Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hok. F. & Thoms 212
31 Tylophora indica Merrill 219
32 Wedelia chinensis Merrill 226
APPENDIX
I Evalution of crude drugs 235
II Phytochemical evalution of raw material 238
III Methods for the isolation of markers 242
IV Drying and storage of raw material 243
V Pesticides, residue and microbial contamination 244
VI Plants allocated various Institutes 246
INDICES
I Botanical names 247
II Chemical constituents 249
III Other names of the Plants 255
VOLUME - II
Foreword v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Abbreviations ix
Introduction xi
Quality Standards of Indian medical plants Covered in Volume I xiii
MONOGRAPHS
1 Albizia lebbeck Benth 1
2 Aristolochia indica Linn 9
3 Boswellia serrata Roxb ex Colebr 19
4 Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. Emend. Dandy & Exell 25
5 Calotropis gigantean R. Br 34
6 Cassia fistula Linn 47
7 Catjaranthus roseus G. Don 54
8 Cissus quadrangularis Linn 62
9 Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb ex Spreng 70
10 Coscinium fenestratum Colebr 79
11 Dactylorhiza hatagirea Soo 87
12 Digitalis lanata Ehrh 94
13 Euphorbia prostrata W. Ait 103
14 Euphorbia tirucalli Linn 112
15 Hemidesmus indicus R. Br 119
16 Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Linn 129
17 Hypericum perforatum Linn 136
18 Liucas cephalotes Spreng 146
19 Malaxisacuminata D. Don 155
20 Mimusops elengi Linn 161
21 Ocimum basilicum Linn 168
22 Ocimum gratissimum Linn 176
23 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn 184
24 Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn 193
25 Saraca asoca de Wilde 201
26 Sida rhombifolia Linn ssp. Rhomnbifolia 209
27 Silybum marianum Gaetn 217
28 Streblus asper Lour 227
29 Taxus wallichiana Zucc. 235
30 Terminalia Arjuna Wight and Arn 243
31 Thevetia perviana K. Schum 253
32 Trianthema portulacastrum Linn 261
APPENDICES
I Evaluation of crude drugs 273
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 276
III Methods for the isolation of markers 280
IV Drying and storage of raw material 282
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 283
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 285
INDICES
I Botanical names 286
II Chemical constituents 288
III Other names of the plants 296

VOLUME III
Foreword v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Abbreviations ix
Introduction xiii
Contents of Volume 1 (Plants Covered) xv
Content of Volume 2 (Plants Covered) xvi
Monographs
1 Adhatoda beddomei Clarke 1
2 Aerva lanata (Linn) Juss. 9
3 Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. 20
4 Allium cepa Linn. 29
5 Allium sativum Linn 38
6 Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. 48
7 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall. Ex Guill. & Perr. 61
8 Areca catechu Linn 69
9 Berberis aristata DC. Var. aristata 78
10 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. 88
11 Capparis deciduas Edgew. 98
12 Carissa carandas Linn. 107
13 Catunaregam spinosa (Thumb.)Tiruv, ssp. Spinosa 115
14 Cichorium intybus Linn. 126
15 Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl 135
16 Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) Nees & Eberm. 149
17 Cissampelos pareira Linn. Var. hirsute (Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Forman 158
18 Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon 167
19 Commiphora wightti (Arnott) Bhandari 177
20 Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting 189
21 Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Ex Kunth 195
22 Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verd. 203
23 Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. 212
24 Ficus virens Ait. 222
25 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn.) Rob. 229
26 Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight and Arn. 236
27 Merremia turpethum (Linn.) Shaw & Bhatt 246
28 Mesua ferrea Linn. Var. ferrea 254
29 Momordica charantia Linn. 262
30 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 271
31 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. 281
32 Psorales corylifolia Linn. 290
33 Punica granatum Linn. 299
34 Rubia cordifolia Linn. 307
35 Sapindus laurifolius Vahl 316
36 Sapindus mukoossi Gaetn. 328
37 Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. 340
38 Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) sprague 349
39 Vitex negundo Linn. 357
40 Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz 367
Appendices
I Evaluation of crude drugs 377
II Phytochemical evaluation of raw material 380
III Methods for the isolation of markers 384
IV Drying and storage of raw material 387
V Pesticide residues and microbial contamination 388
VI Plants allocated to various institutes 390
Indices
I Botanical names 392
II Chemical constituents 394
III Other names of the plants 404

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