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Books > History > Sociology And Anthropology > Sociology of Development (Set of 2 Books)
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Sociology of Development (Set of 2 Books)
Sociology of Development (Set of 2 Books)
Description

About the Book

 

Book : 1

Block I

Development has been understood from diverse perspectives, not only by people, but by social scientists, its practitioners and planners. The practical development has also undergone changes over the centuries as several dimensions have been added while several old ones continue to influence form and direction. In the introductory Block of the third core course, Socio of Development (MSO-Q03), we have provided a clarification of va' perspectives on development and related concepts. While studying this ( you will have to come across several concepts repeatedly viz., develop; change, transformation, progress, growth, evolution, modernisation industrialisation and so on. Block 1, Concepts of Development contexts the use of these concepts both in general and specific terms. There are interrelated units in this Block.

 

Unit 1, Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimension Development deals with notions of development, progress and evaluation from anthropological and sociological perspectives. The evolutionary persp on change and progress as propagated by Morgan, Comte, Spencer, Hobhouse Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Parsons and many others are discussed here. Then and social aspects of development as elucidated by the United Nation Development Programmes are also elaborated here. Amartya Sen's id development as freedom is also presented here briefly. The last section unit deals with the emerging strategy of development with empowerment.

 

Unit 2 is on Change, Modernisation and Development. In this Unit, best conceptualising change, various perspectives on change as elaborated by Evolutionary Theorists, Functionalists, Socio-Psychological Theorists, Marx and others are discussed. Similarly there are several important perspective modernisation viz, ideal-typical, diffusionist, psychological, Marxists and Besides discussing these perspectives their strengths and weaknesses are also discussed here. The concept of development, conditions and barriers development and a few developmental experiences are discussed in the section of this unit.

 

'Unit 3 deals with Social, Human and Gender Development. Development, longer be defined in economic terms. It has a social and human face. Any attempt to ignore these facets has severe social consequence. This aspect of development is examined with reference to the gender question. Besides outlining objectives of development, this unit also delineates the adverse impacts development on women. The last section of this unit deals with the emerging perspectives on women's development.

 

Unit 4 is on Sustainable Development. A development process is futile until and unless this is sustained. This unit deals with the historical context of the emergence of the notion of sustainable development. The idea of sustainable development has a specific definition, meaning, policy objectives and strategies. All these are discussed in this unit. Of late, however there have been several criticisms of the concept of sustainable development. These highlight the logical contradiction and vagueness in-built in this concept. Here you will get enormous scope to re-examine this concept from your own understanding. The future of sustainable development in the context of globalisation is also discussed in this unit.

 

Block II

The title of Block II is Perspectives on Development. Having acquired a basic understanding of the concept of development from the previous block, we explore different perspectives from which development may be studied. More specifically, this block centres on Modernisation, Liberal, Marxian" and Gandhian perspectives

on development.

 

Unit 5 explains how Modernisation, which is inextricably linked with rationality, serves as a heuristic paradigm. The chief concern here is with Giddens's analysis of modernity and its bearing on development. Giddens shares many of his theoretical bearings with contemporary sociological thinkers. We bring them together in this unit with the purpose of encouraging you to think critically.

 

Unit 6 describes the Liberal perspective on development. Liberalism was born out of Enlightenment- the glorious revolution in England, and the, French Revolution. In very simple terms, liberalism upholds the rationality of individuals. In this unit we will study liberalism as an ideology and the many converging streams it enfolds. We will look into the role of the state in a liberal economy and the play of market forces.

 

Unit 7 focuses on the Marxian perspective on development. The end of the 16th century witnessed a well-established factory system. This had far-reaching impact on society in terms of exploitation of workers by capitalists, rise of two major classes, and class struggles. Against this backdrop, unit 7 brings to you Marx's ideas of development, capitalism, class relations, and course of action. From here, we move on to the neo-marxian approach to development.

 

Unit 8 delves into the Gandhian perspective on development. Gandhi accorded importance to labour in the production process. He focused on indigenous technology, local self-governance and self-reliance for social and economic development. For him, decentralising power, empowering local people, and strengthening the village economy were crucial to meaningful development. In the present unit we throw light on these aspects.

 

Block III

In Block III, which is on the Critics of Development, you will familiarise yourself with different critics and debates that have emerged in the development discourse. While units of block III presents critics of development as our main critiques, we must mention that these are not the only critiques of development. There have been some serious debates on the sustainability of development' and people's participations, to mention just a few, which form a corpus of debates that are ongoing in development studies. You will gather this as you continue to explore and understand the Course on development.

 

Unit 9 deals with Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment, which is a critique of Western oriented development theories. In this unit we will be discussing the main features of a set of arguments called dependency theories. We will also be examining the policy implications of the dependency theory. There are some who argue that dependency theories have become outdated as economic practices have changed since the time scholars have come up with these theories. There are others who see a relevance to these theories, especially in the wake of an interconnected global world.

 

Unit 10 deals with Social and Human Development. In this unit we will be discussing the main features of some of the growth-oriented models of development and its criticisms, as a backdrop to understand how the more holistic, and social conception of human development has emerged. We start by understanding human development, by understanding its main features and the measures of human development and the problems associated with measuring indicators, especially complex indicators and elements such as freedom, political participation, multiculturalism, etc. Though human development approach has found many takers, it is not without its criticisms. We tried to cortically evaluate this approach as well.


Unit 11 deals with Gender Perspective on Development. The gender perspective has somehow or other been always a part of debates on development but it took a while for it to be acknowledged. The decade of women prompted a lot of thinking and valuable inputs into the development' discourse. We tried to capture these debates in our unit. We also presented in detail the development situation in India with reference to women.

 

Block IV

There are several approaches and concerns to development. Community level participation and sustainability of development, environmental sustainability, etc. are some of them which have been seriously debated in the present day development discourse. In this block we have discussed some of these approaches and concerns specially from the point of view of a developing country like India. There are four interrelated units in this block.

Unit 12 is on Micro-Planning. Of late there have been several criticisms of centerlised planning as it was unable to address the needs and requirements of people with diverse geographical, cultural and economic backgrounds. The planning process in India has encouraged micro-planning at the grassroots. In this unit we have discussed some of these practices as initiated in several parts of the country. This unit will enlighten you with the concepts, objectives, backgrounds, approaches and strategies of micro-planning in India. The process of advancement of primary education through micro-planning has also been discussed here.

 

Unit 13 deals with Ecology, Environment and Development. Sustainable development has been one of the greatest concern of contemporary era. Ecological balance plays a crucial role to sustainable development. In this unit we have discussed the relationship between ecology and sustainable development, consequences of development on ecology and environment, ecology movement, global concern on ecological and environment issues and strategies of management of natural resources.

 

Unit 14 discusses the issue of Ethno development. Conventional development theories have ignored the significance ethnological issues on development. In recent years however, it has got wide recognition locally and globally. In this unit we have discussed this emerging concern in the' development theories, emergence of alternative approaches and methodology of ethno development.

 

Unit 15 is on the relationship between Population and Development. Since the late 1980s it has been widely recognised that population is at the center of development. In this unit we have discussed various perspective on population and development, politics of population control and India's experience on these issues.

 

Book : 2

 

As you know, Book II of the third core course, MSO-003: Sociology of Development of M.A. Sociology Programme is a continuation of Book I of the same course. Whereas Book I focuses on the concepts and different approaches to development, Book 1I examines the features of current process of development around the world, contextualising it in the development experiences of India and other countries around the globe. The theme of Book 11 has been organised into four Blocks, each having three to four units, which are coherently related to each other. Now let us have a look at the themes and sub-themes of each Block in a little more detail.

 

Block V

Block V, Comparative Experience of Development, looks into the development experiences of four countries, which are India, Canada, Zimbabwe and Brazil. Developing and developed countries from different continents were deliberately selected for the learners to get familiarised. with all-round development experience. The countries differ from each other not only in terms of economic development and geographical location but also in social and cultural aspects. One thing common to all these countries is their colonial past. The development experience of these countries has been examined in relation to their development approaches and also against the backdrop of the current phase of globalisation that engulfs almost all parts of the world. It is very often reflected that the development experience of each of these countries somewhat representative of the development experience of most of the other countries of the respective continents that they belong to. However, our aim is not to make explicit the uniformity but to delineate the diverse practices.

 

Unit 16 examines the development experience of India. Like many other countries India also opted for planned development after getting independence form British rule. Indian government believed that government intervention is required for a balanced development of the country especially after a stagnated growth in the decades before independence. The policy of mixed economy stressing both agricultural and industrial development proved to be apt in the initial decades after Independence. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a drastic change in the development policies when India adopted the policies of economic liberalisation and privatisation. The focus of planned economic development and the impact of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation policies. on the economy and social and cultural life of the people of India are elaborated in this unit.

 

Unit 17 deals with Canada, a country that ranks fourth in the world in standard of living and also in terms of GDP growth and achievement in human development indicators. The present unit exposes you to a brief background of Canada and the major economic activities of different regions of Canada. It looks into the economic history of Canada, which shows a clear shift in the economic approaches of Canada and her commitment for regional unity in trade affairs. Presently Canada has an open economy integrated to the world economy with a heavy orientation towards free market economies. Even while Canada showed trade openness there had been attempts in the country from certain quarters for an economic nationalism. These points are also discussed in the unit. Along with the discussion on economic development of the country the unit also focuses on the social indicators of the development of the country.

 

Unit 18 on Zimbabwe discusses the socio-economic background of the country of Zimbabwe, which though a developing country in terms of world standards, is one of the most economically developed in the African continent. Zimbabwe's economic system is one indicative of a transitional country making the transition from dependency and underdevelopment to self-reliant industrialisation. In this unit a comparison of various Southern African regions has been made to understand Zimbabwe within the region's perspective. It also discusses the social, political and economic scenario of the country.

 

Unit 19 examines the development experience of Brazil. The historical appraisal of the Brazilian economy and its progress to the present state has been done in this unit. The economic crisis that Brazil went through and its recovery from the crisis are dealt with in the unit. This unit also discusses the politics and the government of Brazil. The environmental issues and the social challenges that the country faces are also dealt with.

 

Block VI

The theme of Block VI is Globalisation, an ongoing process that has been experienced, though in varying degrees, by almost every country in the world since the end of the 20th century with increased interconnectedness with the rest of the global countries in economic, social, political, environmental and cultural terms. Globalisation as a process of interaction and interconnectedness between different societies may not be a new phenomena, but what is new about the current process of globalisation is its accelerated pace and the contraction of time and space in interconnectedness. It is essential to know more about the process of globalisation to gain an understanding of the development experiences of all societies around the world. All units in this Block deal with the concept and various dimensions of the process of globalisation, and also its implications for the economic, social and cultural arena of human progress in general, as well as in the specific context of Indian society.

 

Unit 20 deals with the Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation. The process of. globalisation got an accelerated momentum sometime around 1970s and early 1980s. Much of the literature on globalisation started appearing around this period. This unit acquaints you with the definition, meaning and the features of globalisation in different contexts. The unit also provides you an exhaustive account of the economic, social and cultural dimensions of the current process of globalisation.

 

Unit 21 is on the economic policies of Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme. Liberalisation of national economies and the related structural changes in the economy is a significant aspect of the current pace of globalisation, since this is the process which increased the interconnectedness 1 among the countries and thereby enhanced the process of economic globalisation. This unit examines the liberalisation and structural adjustment programme adopted by the Indian government. It explains to you what is understood by the liberalisation of economy and structural adjustment programme as well as the internal and the external compulsions under which India adopted these policies. The implications of this policy for various spheres t of Indian economy are dealt with in detail in the unit.

 

Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous Knowledge is the theme of Unit 22. This unit makes an attempt to analyse the issue of patents and indigenous a knowledge within the backdrop of globalisation and the economic dimensions c and implications of globalisation. The unit reviews some of the basic features t of globalisation in terms of its free trade and liberalisation. It examines the patents regime and its implications for indigenous people and their exclusive B knowledge. It also investigates available strategies as well as responses of the D poorer third world countries and the indigenous communities to the various V aspects of patent laws and philosophy.

 

The theme of Unit 23 is WTO, GATT, GATS: Capital and Human Flows. Global trade has increased manifold during the globalisation period and countries world around felt the need of a trade regulatory body, which culminated in the formation of World Trade Organisation in the year 1995. Although there existed a multilateral agreement called General Agreement on Trade and Tariff to control international trade even before the formation of WTO, it never had an organisational form. WTO is the first world organisation in this matter. WTO deals with trade in goods (GATT), services (GATS), intellectual property rights (TRIPs) and terms for trade related investments (TRIMs). The present unit elaborates on the circumstances of the origin of the world body, WTO, the basic principles under which the organisation functions, the various aspects it deals with and its implications for the developing countries, specifically in relation to social sector development.

 

Block VII

Information and Communication Technologies Form the theme of Block VII. The exponential proliferation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is an important factor that contributed to a large extent, in the expansion of the globalisation process to the current level at a great speed. The invention of microprocessor and the other corollary technological inventions and their expansion and convergence resulted in the penetration of ICTs in all spheres of human activities. To understand the current level of human progress it. is essential to know more about the emergence of ICTs and their implications for different aspects of human life.

 

Unit 24, which is on Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Access and Equity Issues deals with meaning, features and basis of the emerging knowledge society. One of the basic features of the current pace of globalisation is its primary importance of ICTs and the emergence of ICT led knowledge society. Here knowledge becomes a commodity and it become essential to possess knowledge to achieve success in life and to accumulate wealth. The first half of the unit deals with the meaning and features of knowledge society and its various aspects. Then it goes on analysing the three basics of knowledge society, i.e. generation, dissemination and deployment of knowledge, in terms of skill required for knowledge generation; infrastructure for knowledge dissemination and employment structure that relates to knowledge deployment.

 

Unit 25, Critique of Knowledge Society looks into the sociological criticisms in empirical and theoretical terms of the concept of knowledge society. The knowledge society is a concept that had been criticised conceptually, theoretically and empirically. Although the unit deals with each of these criticisms, certain theoretical and empirical criticisms are focused on.

 

Unit 26 is on Changing Role of Media, ICT on Employment. The communication possibilities of the media gained importance in the globalisation era. One of the focuses of this unit is on the shift in the approaches and the functioning of mass media in present times and its impact on the socio-cultural aspects of life. The emergence of new communication technology, the Internet, and its interface with media are analysed here. The convergence of information and communication technologies and their impact on employment and the challenges for ICTs for ensuring better economic growth is also investigated in this unit.

 

Block VIII

Development, Displacement and Social Movements is the theme of Block VIII. The mode of development followed around the globe in the past few decades invited some popular actions due to its negative impacts. Learning this is important to understand the current mode of development in a balanced way.


Unit 27, Dam and Displacement deals with the history of water management and the role of state and community. in water management in general and in the Indian context. Although large dams are termed as temples of human progress they often being untold miseries to very large numbers of people. The modern dam displaces millions of people from their habitats and submerge large tracts of forest. This unit looks into the Indian experience with large dams and the issues of dam and displacement including human, ecological economic, political and cultural aspects.

 

Unit 28 is on Green peace Movement, which emerged in early 1970s challenging the conventional development model prevalent in the capitalist and consumerist world. It is an independent international campaigning organisation, which uses non-violent, creative confrontation to expose global environmental problems and force solutions for a green and peaceful future. It takes different emphases m different places. This unit deals with the emergence and growth of the movement, objectives of the movement, major avenues of action of the movement. It also looks at the issues of sustainable environment and environment-friendly job opportunities.

 

The theme of Unit 29 is People's Science Movement. This is a science-based social activism aimed at alleviating mass poverty and unemployment and concomitant degradation of the human condition. They urge for a more active role of the intellectual community in disseminating knowledge for public good The unit elaborates the background for the emergence of people's science movement, its main objectives and the diverse activities carried out by the movement.

 

Unit 30, Civil Society Movements and Grass root Initiatives largely discus the role of civil society organisation in the upliftment of common people. The interface between civil society and social movements has been widely discusser among the sociologists. Besides looking into the meaning and dimensions civil society, the unit makes an attempt to analyse the parameters of the interface between civil society and social movement. It also examines the role of non-governmental organisations as civil society actors and the role of civil society in empowering the marginalised.

 

Contents

 

Book 1

Block I

Concepts of Development

UNIT 1

Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimensions

11

UNIT 2

Change, Modernisation and Development

28

UNIT 3

Social, Human and Gender Development

47

UNIT 4

Sustainable Development

64

Block II

Perspectives of Development

UNIT 5

Modernisation

79

UNIT 6

Liberal Perspective on Development

89

UNIT 7

Marxian Perspective on Development

99

UNIT 8

Gandhian Perspective on Development

115

Block III

Critics of Development

UNIT 9

Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment

125

UNIT 10

Social and Human Development

135

UNIT 11

Gender Perspective on Development

148

Block IV

Approaches To Sustainable Development

UNIT 12

Micro-Planning

161

UNIT 13

Ecology, Environment and Development

169

UNIT 14

Ethno-development

181

UNIT 15

Population and Development

188

Glossary

199

References

205

Book 2

Block V

Comparative Experience of Development

 

UNIT 16

India

9

UNIT 17

Canada

26

UNIT 18

Zimbabwe

37

UNIT 19

Brazil

49

Block VI

Globallsation

 

UNIT 20

Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation

63

UNIT 21

Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme

85

UNIT 22

Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous Knowledge

99

UNIT 23

WTO, GAD, GATS: Capital and, Human Flows

113

Block VII

Information And Communication Technologies

 

UNIT 24

Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Issue of Access and Equity

131

UNIT 25

Critique of Knowledge Society

150

UNIT 26

Changing Roles of Media and ICTs on Employment

162

Block VIII

Development, Displacement And Social Movements

 

UNIT 27

Dam and Displacement

179

UNIT 28

Green Peace Movement

192

UNIT 29

People's Science Movement

203

UNIT 30

Civil Society Movements and Grassroots Initiatives

212

 

Glossary

223

 

References

231

 

Sociology of Development (Set of 2 Books)

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About the Book

 

Book : 1

Block I

Development has been understood from diverse perspectives, not only by people, but by social scientists, its practitioners and planners. The practical development has also undergone changes over the centuries as several dimensions have been added while several old ones continue to influence form and direction. In the introductory Block of the third core course, Socio of Development (MSO-Q03), we have provided a clarification of va' perspectives on development and related concepts. While studying this ( you will have to come across several concepts repeatedly viz., develop; change, transformation, progress, growth, evolution, modernisation industrialisation and so on. Block 1, Concepts of Development contexts the use of these concepts both in general and specific terms. There are interrelated units in this Block.

 

Unit 1, Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimension Development deals with notions of development, progress and evaluation from anthropological and sociological perspectives. The evolutionary persp on change and progress as propagated by Morgan, Comte, Spencer, Hobhouse Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Parsons and many others are discussed here. Then and social aspects of development as elucidated by the United Nation Development Programmes are also elaborated here. Amartya Sen's id development as freedom is also presented here briefly. The last section unit deals with the emerging strategy of development with empowerment.

 

Unit 2 is on Change, Modernisation and Development. In this Unit, best conceptualising change, various perspectives on change as elaborated by Evolutionary Theorists, Functionalists, Socio-Psychological Theorists, Marx and others are discussed. Similarly there are several important perspective modernisation viz, ideal-typical, diffusionist, psychological, Marxists and Besides discussing these perspectives their strengths and weaknesses are also discussed here. The concept of development, conditions and barriers development and a few developmental experiences are discussed in the section of this unit.

 

'Unit 3 deals with Social, Human and Gender Development. Development, longer be defined in economic terms. It has a social and human face. Any attempt to ignore these facets has severe social consequence. This aspect of development is examined with reference to the gender question. Besides outlining objectives of development, this unit also delineates the adverse impacts development on women. The last section of this unit deals with the emerging perspectives on women's development.

 

Unit 4 is on Sustainable Development. A development process is futile until and unless this is sustained. This unit deals with the historical context of the emergence of the notion of sustainable development. The idea of sustainable development has a specific definition, meaning, policy objectives and strategies. All these are discussed in this unit. Of late, however there have been several criticisms of the concept of sustainable development. These highlight the logical contradiction and vagueness in-built in this concept. Here you will get enormous scope to re-examine this concept from your own understanding. The future of sustainable development in the context of globalisation is also discussed in this unit.

 

Block II

The title of Block II is Perspectives on Development. Having acquired a basic understanding of the concept of development from the previous block, we explore different perspectives from which development may be studied. More specifically, this block centres on Modernisation, Liberal, Marxian" and Gandhian perspectives

on development.

 

Unit 5 explains how Modernisation, which is inextricably linked with rationality, serves as a heuristic paradigm. The chief concern here is with Giddens's analysis of modernity and its bearing on development. Giddens shares many of his theoretical bearings with contemporary sociological thinkers. We bring them together in this unit with the purpose of encouraging you to think critically.

 

Unit 6 describes the Liberal perspective on development. Liberalism was born out of Enlightenment- the glorious revolution in England, and the, French Revolution. In very simple terms, liberalism upholds the rationality of individuals. In this unit we will study liberalism as an ideology and the many converging streams it enfolds. We will look into the role of the state in a liberal economy and the play of market forces.

 

Unit 7 focuses on the Marxian perspective on development. The end of the 16th century witnessed a well-established factory system. This had far-reaching impact on society in terms of exploitation of workers by capitalists, rise of two major classes, and class struggles. Against this backdrop, unit 7 brings to you Marx's ideas of development, capitalism, class relations, and course of action. From here, we move on to the neo-marxian approach to development.

 

Unit 8 delves into the Gandhian perspective on development. Gandhi accorded importance to labour in the production process. He focused on indigenous technology, local self-governance and self-reliance for social and economic development. For him, decentralising power, empowering local people, and strengthening the village economy were crucial to meaningful development. In the present unit we throw light on these aspects.

 

Block III

In Block III, which is on the Critics of Development, you will familiarise yourself with different critics and debates that have emerged in the development discourse. While units of block III presents critics of development as our main critiques, we must mention that these are not the only critiques of development. There have been some serious debates on the sustainability of development' and people's participations, to mention just a few, which form a corpus of debates that are ongoing in development studies. You will gather this as you continue to explore and understand the Course on development.

 

Unit 9 deals with Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment, which is a critique of Western oriented development theories. In this unit we will be discussing the main features of a set of arguments called dependency theories. We will also be examining the policy implications of the dependency theory. There are some who argue that dependency theories have become outdated as economic practices have changed since the time scholars have come up with these theories. There are others who see a relevance to these theories, especially in the wake of an interconnected global world.

 

Unit 10 deals with Social and Human Development. In this unit we will be discussing the main features of some of the growth-oriented models of development and its criticisms, as a backdrop to understand how the more holistic, and social conception of human development has emerged. We start by understanding human development, by understanding its main features and the measures of human development and the problems associated with measuring indicators, especially complex indicators and elements such as freedom, political participation, multiculturalism, etc. Though human development approach has found many takers, it is not without its criticisms. We tried to cortically evaluate this approach as well.


Unit 11 deals with Gender Perspective on Development. The gender perspective has somehow or other been always a part of debates on development but it took a while for it to be acknowledged. The decade of women prompted a lot of thinking and valuable inputs into the development' discourse. We tried to capture these debates in our unit. We also presented in detail the development situation in India with reference to women.

 

Block IV

There are several approaches and concerns to development. Community level participation and sustainability of development, environmental sustainability, etc. are some of them which have been seriously debated in the present day development discourse. In this block we have discussed some of these approaches and concerns specially from the point of view of a developing country like India. There are four interrelated units in this block.

Unit 12 is on Micro-Planning. Of late there have been several criticisms of centerlised planning as it was unable to address the needs and requirements of people with diverse geographical, cultural and economic backgrounds. The planning process in India has encouraged micro-planning at the grassroots. In this unit we have discussed some of these practices as initiated in several parts of the country. This unit will enlighten you with the concepts, objectives, backgrounds, approaches and strategies of micro-planning in India. The process of advancement of primary education through micro-planning has also been discussed here.

 

Unit 13 deals with Ecology, Environment and Development. Sustainable development has been one of the greatest concern of contemporary era. Ecological balance plays a crucial role to sustainable development. In this unit we have discussed the relationship between ecology and sustainable development, consequences of development on ecology and environment, ecology movement, global concern on ecological and environment issues and strategies of management of natural resources.

 

Unit 14 discusses the issue of Ethno development. Conventional development theories have ignored the significance ethnological issues on development. In recent years however, it has got wide recognition locally and globally. In this unit we have discussed this emerging concern in the' development theories, emergence of alternative approaches and methodology of ethno development.

 

Unit 15 is on the relationship between Population and Development. Since the late 1980s it has been widely recognised that population is at the center of development. In this unit we have discussed various perspective on population and development, politics of population control and India's experience on these issues.

 

Book : 2

 

As you know, Book II of the third core course, MSO-003: Sociology of Development of M.A. Sociology Programme is a continuation of Book I of the same course. Whereas Book I focuses on the concepts and different approaches to development, Book 1I examines the features of current process of development around the world, contextualising it in the development experiences of India and other countries around the globe. The theme of Book 11 has been organised into four Blocks, each having three to four units, which are coherently related to each other. Now let us have a look at the themes and sub-themes of each Block in a little more detail.

 

Block V

Block V, Comparative Experience of Development, looks into the development experiences of four countries, which are India, Canada, Zimbabwe and Brazil. Developing and developed countries from different continents were deliberately selected for the learners to get familiarised. with all-round development experience. The countries differ from each other not only in terms of economic development and geographical location but also in social and cultural aspects. One thing common to all these countries is their colonial past. The development experience of these countries has been examined in relation to their development approaches and also against the backdrop of the current phase of globalisation that engulfs almost all parts of the world. It is very often reflected that the development experience of each of these countries somewhat representative of the development experience of most of the other countries of the respective continents that they belong to. However, our aim is not to make explicit the uniformity but to delineate the diverse practices.

 

Unit 16 examines the development experience of India. Like many other countries India also opted for planned development after getting independence form British rule. Indian government believed that government intervention is required for a balanced development of the country especially after a stagnated growth in the decades before independence. The policy of mixed economy stressing both agricultural and industrial development proved to be apt in the initial decades after Independence. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a drastic change in the development policies when India adopted the policies of economic liberalisation and privatisation. The focus of planned economic development and the impact of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation policies. on the economy and social and cultural life of the people of India are elaborated in this unit.

 

Unit 17 deals with Canada, a country that ranks fourth in the world in standard of living and also in terms of GDP growth and achievement in human development indicators. The present unit exposes you to a brief background of Canada and the major economic activities of different regions of Canada. It looks into the economic history of Canada, which shows a clear shift in the economic approaches of Canada and her commitment for regional unity in trade affairs. Presently Canada has an open economy integrated to the world economy with a heavy orientation towards free market economies. Even while Canada showed trade openness there had been attempts in the country from certain quarters for an economic nationalism. These points are also discussed in the unit. Along with the discussion on economic development of the country the unit also focuses on the social indicators of the development of the country.

 

Unit 18 on Zimbabwe discusses the socio-economic background of the country of Zimbabwe, which though a developing country in terms of world standards, is one of the most economically developed in the African continent. Zimbabwe's economic system is one indicative of a transitional country making the transition from dependency and underdevelopment to self-reliant industrialisation. In this unit a comparison of various Southern African regions has been made to understand Zimbabwe within the region's perspective. It also discusses the social, political and economic scenario of the country.

 

Unit 19 examines the development experience of Brazil. The historical appraisal of the Brazilian economy and its progress to the present state has been done in this unit. The economic crisis that Brazil went through and its recovery from the crisis are dealt with in the unit. This unit also discusses the politics and the government of Brazil. The environmental issues and the social challenges that the country faces are also dealt with.

 

Block VI

The theme of Block VI is Globalisation, an ongoing process that has been experienced, though in varying degrees, by almost every country in the world since the end of the 20th century with increased interconnectedness with the rest of the global countries in economic, social, political, environmental and cultural terms. Globalisation as a process of interaction and interconnectedness between different societies may not be a new phenomena, but what is new about the current process of globalisation is its accelerated pace and the contraction of time and space in interconnectedness. It is essential to know more about the process of globalisation to gain an understanding of the development experiences of all societies around the world. All units in this Block deal with the concept and various dimensions of the process of globalisation, and also its implications for the economic, social and cultural arena of human progress in general, as well as in the specific context of Indian society.

 

Unit 20 deals with the Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation. The process of. globalisation got an accelerated momentum sometime around 1970s and early 1980s. Much of the literature on globalisation started appearing around this period. This unit acquaints you with the definition, meaning and the features of globalisation in different contexts. The unit also provides you an exhaustive account of the economic, social and cultural dimensions of the current process of globalisation.

 

Unit 21 is on the economic policies of Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme. Liberalisation of national economies and the related structural changes in the economy is a significant aspect of the current pace of globalisation, since this is the process which increased the interconnectedness 1 among the countries and thereby enhanced the process of economic globalisation. This unit examines the liberalisation and structural adjustment programme adopted by the Indian government. It explains to you what is understood by the liberalisation of economy and structural adjustment programme as well as the internal and the external compulsions under which India adopted these policies. The implications of this policy for various spheres t of Indian economy are dealt with in detail in the unit.

 

Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous Knowledge is the theme of Unit 22. This unit makes an attempt to analyse the issue of patents and indigenous a knowledge within the backdrop of globalisation and the economic dimensions c and implications of globalisation. The unit reviews some of the basic features t of globalisation in terms of its free trade and liberalisation. It examines the patents regime and its implications for indigenous people and their exclusive B knowledge. It also investigates available strategies as well as responses of the D poorer third world countries and the indigenous communities to the various V aspects of patent laws and philosophy.

 

The theme of Unit 23 is WTO, GATT, GATS: Capital and Human Flows. Global trade has increased manifold during the globalisation period and countries world around felt the need of a trade regulatory body, which culminated in the formation of World Trade Organisation in the year 1995. Although there existed a multilateral agreement called General Agreement on Trade and Tariff to control international trade even before the formation of WTO, it never had an organisational form. WTO is the first world organisation in this matter. WTO deals with trade in goods (GATT), services (GATS), intellectual property rights (TRIPs) and terms for trade related investments (TRIMs). The present unit elaborates on the circumstances of the origin of the world body, WTO, the basic principles under which the organisation functions, the various aspects it deals with and its implications for the developing countries, specifically in relation to social sector development.

 

Block VII

Information and Communication Technologies Form the theme of Block VII. The exponential proliferation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is an important factor that contributed to a large extent, in the expansion of the globalisation process to the current level at a great speed. The invention of microprocessor and the other corollary technological inventions and their expansion and convergence resulted in the penetration of ICTs in all spheres of human activities. To understand the current level of human progress it. is essential to know more about the emergence of ICTs and their implications for different aspects of human life.

 

Unit 24, which is on Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Access and Equity Issues deals with meaning, features and basis of the emerging knowledge society. One of the basic features of the current pace of globalisation is its primary importance of ICTs and the emergence of ICT led knowledge society. Here knowledge becomes a commodity and it become essential to possess knowledge to achieve success in life and to accumulate wealth. The first half of the unit deals with the meaning and features of knowledge society and its various aspects. Then it goes on analysing the three basics of knowledge society, i.e. generation, dissemination and deployment of knowledge, in terms of skill required for knowledge generation; infrastructure for knowledge dissemination and employment structure that relates to knowledge deployment.

 

Unit 25, Critique of Knowledge Society looks into the sociological criticisms in empirical and theoretical terms of the concept of knowledge society. The knowledge society is a concept that had been criticised conceptually, theoretically and empirically. Although the unit deals with each of these criticisms, certain theoretical and empirical criticisms are focused on.

 

Unit 26 is on Changing Role of Media, ICT on Employment. The communication possibilities of the media gained importance in the globalisation era. One of the focuses of this unit is on the shift in the approaches and the functioning of mass media in present times and its impact on the socio-cultural aspects of life. The emergence of new communication technology, the Internet, and its interface with media are analysed here. The convergence of information and communication technologies and their impact on employment and the challenges for ICTs for ensuring better economic growth is also investigated in this unit.

 

Block VIII

Development, Displacement and Social Movements is the theme of Block VIII. The mode of development followed around the globe in the past few decades invited some popular actions due to its negative impacts. Learning this is important to understand the current mode of development in a balanced way.


Unit 27, Dam and Displacement deals with the history of water management and the role of state and community. in water management in general and in the Indian context. Although large dams are termed as temples of human progress they often being untold miseries to very large numbers of people. The modern dam displaces millions of people from their habitats and submerge large tracts of forest. This unit looks into the Indian experience with large dams and the issues of dam and displacement including human, ecological economic, political and cultural aspects.

 

Unit 28 is on Green peace Movement, which emerged in early 1970s challenging the conventional development model prevalent in the capitalist and consumerist world. It is an independent international campaigning organisation, which uses non-violent, creative confrontation to expose global environmental problems and force solutions for a green and peaceful future. It takes different emphases m different places. This unit deals with the emergence and growth of the movement, objectives of the movement, major avenues of action of the movement. It also looks at the issues of sustainable environment and environment-friendly job opportunities.

 

The theme of Unit 29 is People's Science Movement. This is a science-based social activism aimed at alleviating mass poverty and unemployment and concomitant degradation of the human condition. They urge for a more active role of the intellectual community in disseminating knowledge for public good The unit elaborates the background for the emergence of people's science movement, its main objectives and the diverse activities carried out by the movement.

 

Unit 30, Civil Society Movements and Grass root Initiatives largely discus the role of civil society organisation in the upliftment of common people. The interface between civil society and social movements has been widely discusser among the sociologists. Besides looking into the meaning and dimensions civil society, the unit makes an attempt to analyse the parameters of the interface between civil society and social movement. It also examines the role of non-governmental organisations as civil society actors and the role of civil society in empowering the marginalised.

 

Contents

 

Book 1

Block I

Concepts of Development

UNIT 1

Development and Progress: Economic and Social Dimensions

11

UNIT 2

Change, Modernisation and Development

28

UNIT 3

Social, Human and Gender Development

47

UNIT 4

Sustainable Development

64

Block II

Perspectives of Development

UNIT 5

Modernisation

79

UNIT 6

Liberal Perspective on Development

89

UNIT 7

Marxian Perspective on Development

99

UNIT 8

Gandhian Perspective on Development

115

Block III

Critics of Development

UNIT 9

Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment

125

UNIT 10

Social and Human Development

135

UNIT 11

Gender Perspective on Development

148

Block IV

Approaches To Sustainable Development

UNIT 12

Micro-Planning

161

UNIT 13

Ecology, Environment and Development

169

UNIT 14

Ethno-development

181

UNIT 15

Population and Development

188

Glossary

199

References

205

Book 2

Block V

Comparative Experience of Development

 

UNIT 16

India

9

UNIT 17

Canada

26

UNIT 18

Zimbabwe

37

UNIT 19

Brazil

49

Block VI

Globallsation

 

UNIT 20

Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation

63

UNIT 21

Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme

85

UNIT 22

Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous Knowledge

99

UNIT 23

WTO, GAD, GATS: Capital and, Human Flows

113

Block VII

Information And Communication Technologies

 

UNIT 24

Dimensions of Knowledge Society: Issue of Access and Equity

131

UNIT 25

Critique of Knowledge Society

150

UNIT 26

Changing Roles of Media and ICTs on Employment

162

Block VIII

Development, Displacement And Social Movements

 

UNIT 27

Dam and Displacement

179

UNIT 28

Green Peace Movement

192

UNIT 29

People's Science Movement

203

UNIT 30

Civil Society Movements and Grassroots Initiatives

212

 

Glossary

223

 

References

231

 

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