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Tolerance
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Tolerance
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ABOUT THE BOOK

The present book entitled 'Tolerance : A Golden Path to Peaceful Co-existence' is the result of a national seminar on 'Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity of Cultures' organised by the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa in collaboration with the University of Goa, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of UNESCO.

The papers written by outstanding scholars in their respective specialisations cover a vast expanse of tolerance and diversity in India-in the field of religion, social customs and traditions, political thought, intellectual understanding, rural-urban settings, economic structure, education and literature.

Tolerance as reflected in European literature and recognition of other multicultural societies has also been discussed in detail.

The idea that in view of the vast diversity in living habits and view points but the same social and geographical space to occupy, the compulsion to "live together while living differently" has been ably brought out.

Cultures should prepare themselves for the time when they will inevitably rub each others' shoulders; it does not mean losing one's identity but rather reinforcing and preparing it for encounters. Intolerance may be a sign of cultural arrogance; it may also be a sign of lack of confidence in one's cultural strength or both at the same time.

Understanding and mutual appreciation of different cultures in a spirit of tolerance can prove to be the best way of living together and yet differently, in peace and harmony. This massage is very well epitomized in the title of the book.

If the salient ideas of tolerance and acceptance of cultural diversity spread across the world and greater enlightenment governs human relations, it is possible to hope for a more peaceful, equitable, just and happier world in the years to come.

ABOUT THE EDITOR

Born in Goa in 1924, Dr. Mahale started his teaching career, after passing M.A. examination in French from Wilson College of Bombay University in 1951. He worked as a lecturer in French at Ram Narayan Ruia College for one year and in Wilson college for another year, before joining Karnataka College, Dharwar in 1953. He went to Paris on a Government of India scholarship for specialisation in French Civilisation in 1956-1957. He went again to Paris in 1958 on a French Government scholarship for his doctoral studies. As he had completed his legal studies in Government Law College, Bombay in 1955, he took his Ph.D. in Public International Law from the University of Paris and then Ph.D. in French Literature from the Sorbonne in 1961.

On his return to India, he organised the Department of Foreign Languages at the Karnataka University, Dharwar. In 1971, he joined the newly established J.N.U as Head of the Centre for French Studies. He soon became the Dean of the School of Languages and developed it fully to teach foreign languages by modern methods and equipment. It has now become the biggest School in India for foreign languages. In J.N.U. he held varied positions : Head, Centre of French Studies, Dean, School of Languages, Dean of Students, Rector of the University, and acting V.C. for about eight months. In 1984, he went on deputation to Manipur University, Imphal as Vice Chancellor of that University. He retired from J.N.U. on due date and from Manipur University in 1990, after developing it as a leading Centre of higher learning and research. He has the distinction of having been not only a good academician but also a fine and efficient administrator.

Dr. K.J. Mahale is Professor Emeritus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and Chairman of the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa. Now he has settled down in Goa for good.

Editorial' Preface

The volume presented herewith is a collection of papers presented at the Seminar of "Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity" organised by the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa in collaboration with Goa University on 8th and 9th December, 1995. The papers written by outstanding scholars in their respective specialisations cover a vast expanse of tolerance and diversity in India-in the field of religion, social customs and traditions, political thought, intellectual understanding, rural-urban settings, economic structure, education and literature.

All tolerance is not virtue and all intolerance is not evil, it is argued. A distinction is made between passive and active tolerance-while passive tolerance amounts to indifference, active tolerance is born out of free will of a person.

The idea that in view of the vast diversity in living habits and view points but the same social and geographical space to occupy, the compulsion to "live together while living differently" has been ably brought out.

Thinking of 'us' or 'self' versus 'they' or 'others' is brought out as the root cause of conflict. Dialogue is suggested as the best way of knowing 'me' and understanding 'others’.

Education refines the sensitivities to and perceptions of `others'. Teachers have a definite role in promoting these sensitivities and perceptions.

A discussion of the political dimension of tolerance evolved into a detailed analysis of the historical events and strategies used by the British to develop a cleavage between the two major communities in India and finally leave a truncated Indian subcontinent. The inter-community relations, it is suggested, need to the viewed on the strength of irrefutable evidence of complex but long standing day-to-day interactions. Feelings of oneness among men are reflected in the words of a famous poet of the previous century thus: "My creed is oneness; my belief is abandonment of rituals. Let all communities dissolve and constitute a faith.

The co-relation between tolerance and urbanisation is studied through a profile of Bombay (now Mumbai) which is one city not dominated by any one community. It has no history as an old temple town nor as a production centre or capital city of a medieval kingdom. So, there developed many life styles which persisted side by side but did not destroy each other. Through the years, Bombay indicates a high correlation between urbanisation and economic expansion on one hand and acceptance of diversities on the other.

The studies are not limited to India alone; tolerance in respect to the world community has also been discussed. Antisemitism, racism, fundamentalism, paternalism, casteism and the forces opposing these have formed the subject matter of discussions through these papers.

For literature and creative writers, during the past fifty years, India has been a remarkably free and tolerant social and cultural environment as compared with happenings in Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Communist Russia. Casteism has been raising its head in Indian literature but it is forcing various social groups to tolerate and accommodate each other. The intolerance and the exclusiveness are wearing off, though very slowly. Tolerance as reflected in European literature and recognition of other multicultural societies have been discussed in great detail and with perfect understanding. French literature with reference to Goa highlights tolerance as the basic philosophy of Voltaire's works. Intolerance as a function of ignorance of the totality of life and fear of the new has been ably brought out. The paper on Women's Rights as Human Rights discusses various aspects of tolerance of women and exercise of Human Rights granted to them.

Covering the vast subject of Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity in such an able and concise manner, the scholars have made the most valuable contribution to the existing literature. The future scholars, I am sure, will appreciate and value the interdisciplinary approach to the subject. If the salient ideas of tolerance and acceptance of cultural diversity spread across the world and greater enlightenment governs human relations, it is possible to hope for a more peaceful, equitable, just and happier world in the years to come. Although we had received several papers of high quality, only a few selected articles have been included in the volume on account of financial constraints. I sincerely thank the scholars who presented learned papers and also those who participated in the discussions to make the seminar a success. I am particularly grateful to Mr. Gaston Eyben, who co-ordinated very meticulously all the sections of the seminar and made possible the publication of this volume. The Institute is grateful also to the publishers, Books India International, New Delhi, for their quality work.

Introduction GASTON EYBEN Why this discussion on Tolerance? May be because the world seems to be in a mood not very conducive to recognise it as a tenet of human behaviour. Countries freed from an oppressive apparently monolithic Empire turn themselves into narrow ethno-religious entities; others are steadily swelling what divides them as a nation rather than counting what unites them. The most powerful State in the world is increasingly submitted to the constraints of zealots; others more and more indulge in medieval faith, customs, as an aggressive affirmation of religious identity. Protection of the fabric of society becomes routinely a pretext for restrictive practices limiting access to information or to windows opened on the outside world. Books and films are banned or restricted for no other reason than that the representation of events do not suit some segments of the society or individuals in a position of power. In high seats of learning, the universities, student union can decide who will be allowed to speak on the campus according to whether or not the speakers can be trusted to advocate what is politically or socially correct; other campuses are ,turned into battle grounds if not shooting ranges on minor differences of appreciation of religious or social tenets.

The wheel has turned to such an extent that once again the very idea of individuals and societies accepting and Acoma-dating human diversity is challenged as a principle and not only distorted in practice. There are in these days too many talks about ‘values’ and their self-styled defence and about political, cultural correctness for humanists not to be alerted.

**Contents and Sample Pages**








Tolerance

Item Code:
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Edition:
2002
Language:
ENGLISH
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Pages:
202
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ABOUT THE BOOK

The present book entitled 'Tolerance : A Golden Path to Peaceful Co-existence' is the result of a national seminar on 'Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity of Cultures' organised by the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa in collaboration with the University of Goa, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of UNESCO.

The papers written by outstanding scholars in their respective specialisations cover a vast expanse of tolerance and diversity in India-in the field of religion, social customs and traditions, political thought, intellectual understanding, rural-urban settings, economic structure, education and literature.

Tolerance as reflected in European literature and recognition of other multicultural societies has also been discussed in detail.

The idea that in view of the vast diversity in living habits and view points but the same social and geographical space to occupy, the compulsion to "live together while living differently" has been ably brought out.

Cultures should prepare themselves for the time when they will inevitably rub each others' shoulders; it does not mean losing one's identity but rather reinforcing and preparing it for encounters. Intolerance may be a sign of cultural arrogance; it may also be a sign of lack of confidence in one's cultural strength or both at the same time.

Understanding and mutual appreciation of different cultures in a spirit of tolerance can prove to be the best way of living together and yet differently, in peace and harmony. This massage is very well epitomized in the title of the book.

If the salient ideas of tolerance and acceptance of cultural diversity spread across the world and greater enlightenment governs human relations, it is possible to hope for a more peaceful, equitable, just and happier world in the years to come.

ABOUT THE EDITOR

Born in Goa in 1924, Dr. Mahale started his teaching career, after passing M.A. examination in French from Wilson College of Bombay University in 1951. He worked as a lecturer in French at Ram Narayan Ruia College for one year and in Wilson college for another year, before joining Karnataka College, Dharwar in 1953. He went to Paris on a Government of India scholarship for specialisation in French Civilisation in 1956-1957. He went again to Paris in 1958 on a French Government scholarship for his doctoral studies. As he had completed his legal studies in Government Law College, Bombay in 1955, he took his Ph.D. in Public International Law from the University of Paris and then Ph.D. in French Literature from the Sorbonne in 1961.

On his return to India, he organised the Department of Foreign Languages at the Karnataka University, Dharwar. In 1971, he joined the newly established J.N.U as Head of the Centre for French Studies. He soon became the Dean of the School of Languages and developed it fully to teach foreign languages by modern methods and equipment. It has now become the biggest School in India for foreign languages. In J.N.U. he held varied positions : Head, Centre of French Studies, Dean, School of Languages, Dean of Students, Rector of the University, and acting V.C. for about eight months. In 1984, he went on deputation to Manipur University, Imphal as Vice Chancellor of that University. He retired from J.N.U. on due date and from Manipur University in 1990, after developing it as a leading Centre of higher learning and research. He has the distinction of having been not only a good academician but also a fine and efficient administrator.

Dr. K.J. Mahale is Professor Emeritus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and Chairman of the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa. Now he has settled down in Goa for good.

Editorial' Preface

The volume presented herewith is a collection of papers presented at the Seminar of "Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity" organised by the Institute of Indo-European Studies, Goa in collaboration with Goa University on 8th and 9th December, 1995. The papers written by outstanding scholars in their respective specialisations cover a vast expanse of tolerance and diversity in India-in the field of religion, social customs and traditions, political thought, intellectual understanding, rural-urban settings, economic structure, education and literature.

All tolerance is not virtue and all intolerance is not evil, it is argued. A distinction is made between passive and active tolerance-while passive tolerance amounts to indifference, active tolerance is born out of free will of a person.

The idea that in view of the vast diversity in living habits and view points but the same social and geographical space to occupy, the compulsion to "live together while living differently" has been ably brought out.

Thinking of 'us' or 'self' versus 'they' or 'others' is brought out as the root cause of conflict. Dialogue is suggested as the best way of knowing 'me' and understanding 'others’.

Education refines the sensitivities to and perceptions of `others'. Teachers have a definite role in promoting these sensitivities and perceptions.

A discussion of the political dimension of tolerance evolved into a detailed analysis of the historical events and strategies used by the British to develop a cleavage between the two major communities in India and finally leave a truncated Indian subcontinent. The inter-community relations, it is suggested, need to the viewed on the strength of irrefutable evidence of complex but long standing day-to-day interactions. Feelings of oneness among men are reflected in the words of a famous poet of the previous century thus: "My creed is oneness; my belief is abandonment of rituals. Let all communities dissolve and constitute a faith.

The co-relation between tolerance and urbanisation is studied through a profile of Bombay (now Mumbai) which is one city not dominated by any one community. It has no history as an old temple town nor as a production centre or capital city of a medieval kingdom. So, there developed many life styles which persisted side by side but did not destroy each other. Through the years, Bombay indicates a high correlation between urbanisation and economic expansion on one hand and acceptance of diversities on the other.

The studies are not limited to India alone; tolerance in respect to the world community has also been discussed. Antisemitism, racism, fundamentalism, paternalism, casteism and the forces opposing these have formed the subject matter of discussions through these papers.

For literature and creative writers, during the past fifty years, India has been a remarkably free and tolerant social and cultural environment as compared with happenings in Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Communist Russia. Casteism has been raising its head in Indian literature but it is forcing various social groups to tolerate and accommodate each other. The intolerance and the exclusiveness are wearing off, though very slowly. Tolerance as reflected in European literature and recognition of other multicultural societies have been discussed in great detail and with perfect understanding. French literature with reference to Goa highlights tolerance as the basic philosophy of Voltaire's works. Intolerance as a function of ignorance of the totality of life and fear of the new has been ably brought out. The paper on Women's Rights as Human Rights discusses various aspects of tolerance of women and exercise of Human Rights granted to them.

Covering the vast subject of Tolerance and Acceptance of Diversity in such an able and concise manner, the scholars have made the most valuable contribution to the existing literature. The future scholars, I am sure, will appreciate and value the interdisciplinary approach to the subject. If the salient ideas of tolerance and acceptance of cultural diversity spread across the world and greater enlightenment governs human relations, it is possible to hope for a more peaceful, equitable, just and happier world in the years to come. Although we had received several papers of high quality, only a few selected articles have been included in the volume on account of financial constraints. I sincerely thank the scholars who presented learned papers and also those who participated in the discussions to make the seminar a success. I am particularly grateful to Mr. Gaston Eyben, who co-ordinated very meticulously all the sections of the seminar and made possible the publication of this volume. The Institute is grateful also to the publishers, Books India International, New Delhi, for their quality work.

Introduction GASTON EYBEN Why this discussion on Tolerance? May be because the world seems to be in a mood not very conducive to recognise it as a tenet of human behaviour. Countries freed from an oppressive apparently monolithic Empire turn themselves into narrow ethno-religious entities; others are steadily swelling what divides them as a nation rather than counting what unites them. The most powerful State in the world is increasingly submitted to the constraints of zealots; others more and more indulge in medieval faith, customs, as an aggressive affirmation of religious identity. Protection of the fabric of society becomes routinely a pretext for restrictive practices limiting access to information or to windows opened on the outside world. Books and films are banned or restricted for no other reason than that the representation of events do not suit some segments of the society or individuals in a position of power. In high seats of learning, the universities, student union can decide who will be allowed to speak on the campus according to whether or not the speakers can be trusted to advocate what is politically or socially correct; other campuses are ,turned into battle grounds if not shooting ranges on minor differences of appreciation of religious or social tenets.

The wheel has turned to such an extent that once again the very idea of individuals and societies accepting and Acoma-dating human diversity is challenged as a principle and not only distorted in practice. There are in these days too many talks about ‘values’ and their self-styled defence and about political, cultural correctness for humanists not to be alerted.

**Contents and Sample Pages**








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